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Glossary of International Export Import Trade Terms and Shipping Terms.


Glossary of Export Import International Trade and Shipping Terms

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Glossary of Export Import Trade Terms Starting with-A

ABAppellate Body
Absolute Advantage(AB-AD)An absolute advantage exists in condition of when a nation or other economic region of any country is able to produce a good or service more efficiently than a second (other) nation or its region.
Accounting Translation ExposureChanges in a organizations or corporation’s financial statements as a result of changes in currency values.
ACPAfrican, Caribbean, and Pacific countries.
Acquisition of AssetsIn an acquisition of assets, one firm acquires the assets of another company. None of the liabilities supporting that asset are transferred to the purchaser.
Acquisition of StockIn an acquisition of stock, one firm buys an equity interest in another.
Acquisition PremiumIn a merger or acquisition, the difference between the purchase price and the reacquisition value of the target firm or company.
Active Fund ManagementAn investment approach that actively shifts funds either between asset classes (asset allocation) or between individual securities (security selection).
Active IncomeIn the U.S. tax code, income from an active business as opposed to passive investment income.
Activity-Based-Cost (ABC)An accounting method that allocates costs to specific products based on breakdowns of cost drivers.
Ad valorem TariffA tariff assessed as a percentage of the value of an import.
ADBAsia Development Bank, head quartered located in Manila, Philippines (ASIA).
Adjusted Present Value(APV)An APV is a valuation method that separately identifies the value of an unlevered project from the value of financing side effects.
Advance PaymentAdvance Payment is a Trading method in which the buyer pays for the goods before they are sent out , method is used when buyer is of unknown credit worthiness. It is applicable in International or domestic trade.
AdventureAdventure also define for marine adventure." It is a term of art in the marine insurance business. All insured cargo owners and every shipper on that vessel are part of the adventure.
Advising BankAdvising Bank is usually in the country of the seller, whose primary function is to authenticate the letter of credit and advise it to the seller, Purchase and collection of Export Bills.
Advisory CapacityUsed to indicate that a shipper's agent or representative is not empowered to make definitive changes or adjustments without approval of the group or individual represented.
African Developmental Bank (ABD)The ABD is one of four major regional developmental banks currently operating in the global economy; it is headquartered in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire.
Agency CostsThe costs incurred to ensure that agents act in the best interest of the principal.
AgentSomeone who represents business in domestic and overseas market. In corporate governance terminology, management is the agent of the principal stakeholders in a principal-agent relationship.
Aggregate DemandThe total demand of all potential buyers of a commodity or service. Includes all individuals and organizations that have the ability, willingness, and authority to purchase such products.
Air WaybillA no-negotiable instrument of domestic and international air transport that functions as a bill of lading, all information described about domestic and international trade.
All-in CostThe percentage cost of a financing alternative, including any bank fees or placement fees.
Allocation Rules of IncomeIn the U.S. tax code, these rules define how income and deductions are to be allocated between domestic-source and foreign-source income.
Allocation efficiencyThe efficiency with which a market channels capital toward its most productive uses.
Andean PactA regional trade pact that includes Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
AnnuityA level stream of equal dollar payments that lasts for a fixed time. An example of an annuity is the coupon part of a bond with level annual payments.
Annuity FactorThe term used to calculate the present value of the stream of level payments for a fixed period.
Anti-Dumping LawsLaws that are enacted to prevent dumping-offering prices in the overseas market that is lower than that at which a product is sold in its home domestic market.
APECAsia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AppreciationAn increase in a currency value relative to another currency in a floating exchange rate system.
ArbitrageThe process of purchasing and selling foreign exchange, stocks, bonds and other commodities in several markets intending to make profit from the difference in price.
Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT)An asset pricing model that assumes a linear relation between required return and systematic risk as measured by one or more factors according to Rj = mj + b1jF1 + ... + bKjFK + ej.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)APEC forum designed to promote economic growth, cooperation, and integration among member nations. The most prominent members are China, Japan, and Korea.
Asian Development Bank (ABD)One of four major regional development banks currently operating in the global economy; it is headquartered in Manila, Philippines.
Ask "offer" RatesThe rate at which a market maker is willing to sell the quoted asset.
Asset Allocation PolicyThe target weights given to various asset classes in an investment portfolio.
Assets-in-PlaceThose assets in which the firm has already invested. (Compare to growth options.)
Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)A loose or low economic and geopolitical affiliation that includes Singapore, Brunei, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Future members are likely to include Myanmar (Burma), Laos, and Cambodia.
At-the-Money OptionAn option with an exercise price that is equal to the current value of the underlying asset.
ATCAgreement on Textiles and Clothing
AutarkyIn models of international trade, a situation in which there is no cross-border trade.
AvalA guarantee of the buyer's credit provided by the guarantor, unless the buyer is of unquestioned financial standing. The aval is an endorsement note as opposed to a guarantee agreement.
AvalisationPayment undertaking given by a bank in respect of a bill of exchange drawn.
Average Accounting Return (AAR)The average project earnings after taxes and depreciation divided by the average book value of the investment during its life.
AEZsRefers to a scheme of Agricultural Export Zones.
Advance LicenceAdvance Licence is granted for import of inputs without payment of customs duties. It is issued in accordance with the Policy and procedures in force and subject to fulfillment of time-bound export obligation. Such licences can be issu
AcceptanceAny agreement to purchase goods under specified terms. An agreement to purchase goods at a stated price and under stated terms.
Ad ValoremAccording to value
Advance Against DocumentsA loan made on the security of the documents covering the shipment.
Advising BankA bank, operating in the exporter's country, that handles LETTERS OF CREDIT for a foreign bank by notifying the exporter that the credit has been opened in his or her favor.
Advisory CapacityA term indicating that shipper's agent or representative is not empowered to make definitive decisions or adjustments without approval of the group or individual represented.
Air WaybillA BILL OF LADING that covers both domestic and international flights transporting goods to a specified destination.
AlongsideA phrase referring to the side of a ship. Goods to be delivered "alongside" are to be placed on the dock or barge within reach of the transport ship's tackle so that they can be loaded aboard the ship.
AlterationA change in the boundaries of an activated zone or subzone.
ApplicantA corporation applying for the right to establish, operate and maintain a foreign-trade zone.
ArbitrageThe process of buying FOREIGN EXCHANGE, stocks, bonds and other commodities in one market and immediately selling them in another market at higher prices.
Asian DollarsU.S. dollars deposited in Asia and the Pacific Basin.
Attributive BasisMethod of accounting for merchandise where direct identification of the goods with the shipment as admitted to the zone has been lost.

Glossary of Export Import International Trade Terms Starting with-B

Backward InnovationBuilding a more basic version of an existing product for a lesser-developed market.
Balance of Payments (BOP)The BOP is the annual financial record of Foreign Payments and Foreign Receivables. Or The BOP is the International Money Fund’s accounting system that tracks the flow of goods, services, and capital in and out of each country.
Balance of Trade (BOT)The difference between a country’s total imports and exports.
Balance SheetA statement showing a firm's accounting value on a particular date. It reflects the equation, Assets = Liabilities + Stockholders' equity.
Bank for International Settlements (BIS)An international organization which promotes international monetary and financial cooperation among nations.
Bank-based Corporate Governance SystemA system of corporate governance in which the supervisory board is dominated by bankers and other corporate insiders.
Banker's DraftA payment instrument used to make international payments.
Banker’s AcceptanceA time draft drawn on and accepted by a commercial bank.
BasisThe simple difference between two nominal interest rates.
Bargain Purchase OptionA lease provision allowing the lessee, to purchase the equipment for a price predetermined at lease inception, which is substantially lower than the expected fair market value at the date the option can be exercised.
BarterTrade in which goods or merchandise is exchanged directly for others import or export without use of money.
Basic IRRAccept the project if IRR is greater than the discount rate; reject the project if IRR is less than the discount rate.
Basis PointEqual to 1/100 of one percent.
Basis RiskThe risk of unexpected change in the relationship between futures and spot prices.
Basis SwapA floating-for-floating interest rate swap that pairs two floating rate instruments at different maturities (such as six-month LIBOR versus thirty-day U.S. T-bills).
Bearer BondsBonds that can be redeemed by the holder. The convention in most West European countries is to issue bonds in registered form.
BenchmarkingA systematic procedure of comparing a company’s practices against the best practice and modifying actual knowledge to achieve superior performance.
BeneficiaryA party who receives a legal benefit Domestic or foreign Dealings.
BetaA measure of an asset’s sensitivity to changes in the market portfolio (in the CAPM) or to a factor (in the APT). The beta of an asset j is computed as bj = rj,k (sj/sk), where k represents a market factor (such as returns to the market portfolio in the C
Bid rateThe rate at which a market maker is willing to buy the quoted asset.
Bid-offer SpreadThe difference between the interest rate at which the bank borrows money and lends money.
Bill of  Lading (B/L)A document that establishes the terms and conditions of a contract between a shipper and a shipping company under which freight is to be moved between specified points for a specified charge. The B/L is Negotiable or Non-Negotiable forms.
Blank EndorsementThe method whereby a bill of lading is made into a freely negotiable document of title.
Blanket BondA bond that coves a group of people, articles or properties.
Blanket ContractsA long-term contract in which the supplier promises to re-supply the buyers as needed at agreed-upon prices over the contracting time.
Blocked FundsCash flows generated by a foreign project that cannot be immediately repatriated to the parent firm because of capital flow restrictions imposed by the host government.
Bond Equivalent YieldA bond quotation convention based on a 365-day year and semiannual coupons. (Contrast with effective annual yield.)
Bonded WarehouseA warehouse authorized by customs authorities for storage of goods on which payment of duties is deferred until the goods are removed.
Bonded Warehouse- a warehouse authorized for storage of good on which payment of duty is deferred until the goods are removed from the warehouse.
Break-Even Point AnalysisAnalysis of the level of sales at which a project would make zero profit.
Britton Woods AgreementAn agreement made in 1944 year the end of World War II to promote exchange rate stability and facilitate the international flow of currencies. The world Bank and IMF(International Monetary funds ) come into the existence.
Britton Woods ConferenceAn international conference held in 1944 at Britton Woods, New Hampshire, and established the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
BTPBTP means Biotechnology Park as notified by Director General of Foreign Trade on the recommendation of the Department of Biotechnology
Bonded WarehouseA warehouse authorized by CUSTOMS authorities for storage of goods on which payment of DUTIES is deferred until the goods are removed.
BookingAn arrangement with a steamship company for the acceptance and carriage of freight.

Glossary of Export Import Foreign Trade Terms Starting with-C

CAAClean Air Act (USA)
Call OptionThe right to buy the underlying currency at a specified price and on a specified date.
Capital (Financial) StructureThe proportion of debt and equity and the particular forms of debt and equity chosen to finance the assets of the firm.
Capital AccountA measure of change in cross-border ownership of long-term financial assets, including financial securities and real estate.
Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)An asset pricing model that relates the required return on an asset to its systematic risk.
Capital BudgetingPlanning and managing expenditures for long-lived assets.
Capital FormationThe process of increasing the amount of capital goods - also called capital stock - in a country.
Capital GainThe positive change in the value of an asset, a negative capital gain is a capital loss.
Capital Market LineThe line between the risk-free asset and the market portfolio that represents the mean-variance efficient set of investment opportunities in the CAPM.
Capital MarketsMarkets for financial assets and liabilities with maturity greater than one year, including long-term government and corporate bonds, preferred stock, and common stock.
Capital RationingThe case where funds are limited to a fixed dollar amount and must be allocated among the competing projects.
Capital StructureThe mix of the various debt and equity capital maintained by a firm. Also called financial structure. The composition of a corporation's securities used to finance its investment activities; the relative proportions of short-term debt, long-term debt, and
CapitalismAn economic system that is based on private ownership; economic development is proportionate to and dependent upon the accumulation and reinvestment of profits.
CarrierAn individual or entity that transports persons or goods for compensation under the contract of carriage.
CartelAn agreement among, or an organization of, suppliers of a product.
Cash Against Documents (CAD)Payment for goods where a commission house or other intermediary transfers title documents to the buyer upon payment in cash.
Cash CoverIn a letter of credit transaction, money deposited by the applicant with the issuing bank.
Cash FlowCash generated by the firm and paid to creditors and shareholders. It can be classified as (1) cash flow from operations, (2) cash flow from changes in fixed assets, and (3) cash flow from changes in net working capital.
Cash in Advance (CIA)Payment for goods in which the price is paid in full before the shipment is made. This type of payment is usually only made for very small shipments or when goods are made in order.
Centrally Planned EconomyAn economy in which the government, rather than free-market activity, controls the allocation of resources.
Certificate of AcceptanceTerm used in leasing. A document whereby the lessee acknowledges that the equipment to be leased has been delivered, is acceptable, and has been manufactured or constructed according to specifications.
Certificate of Analysis/certificate of InspectionDocuments that may be asked for by the importer and/or the authorities of the importing country, as evidence of quality or conformity to specifications.
Certificate of ManufactureA statement that is usually notarised in which the producer of goods certifies that the goods have been produced and are now available to the buyer.
Certificate of OriginDocuments that may be asked for by the authorities of the importing country, as evidence of the country of manufacture of the goods.
Certificate of Product OriginA document required by certain foreign countries for tariff purpose, certifying the country of origin of specified goods.
Change in Net Working CapitalDifference between net working capital from one period to another.
Characteristic LineThe line relating the expected return on a security to different returns on the market.
CHIPS (Clearing House Interbank Payments System)Financial network through which banks in the United States conduct their financial transactions.
CITESConvention on the International Trade in Endangered Species
Civil Society Organizations (CSOs)Non-governmental and non-profit groups that work to improve society and the human condition.
Clean Bill of LadingA receipt for goods issued by a carrier that indicates that the goods were received in apparently good order and without damage.
Clean CollectionCollection in which only the financial document is sent through the banks.
ClearanceThe completion of customs entry requirements that results in the release of goods to the importer.
ClearingThe settlement of a transaction, often involving exchange of payments and/or documentation.
Closed-End FundA mutual fund in which the amount of funds under management is fixed and ownership in the funds is bought and sold in the market like a depository receipt.
CodexCodex Alimentarius Commission (a world food standards body)
Collection OrderIn a collection, the document in which the seller instructs the banks as to how the collection is to be conducted.
Command EconomyAn economy based on government ownership and/or control of society's resources; during the 20th century, the dominant form of command economy was communism.
Commercial DocumentGeneral term for documents describing various aspects of a transaction, e.g. commercial invoice, transport document, insurance document, certificate of origin, certificate of inspection etc.
Commodity Price RiskThe risk of unexpected changes in a commodity price, such as the price of oil.
Commodity SwapA swap in which the (often notional) principal amount on at least one side of the swap is a commodity such as oil or gold.
Common CarrierAn organization that transports persons or goods for a fee.
Comparative AdvantageA comparative advantage exists when a nation or economic region is able to produce a product at a lower opportunity cost compared to another nation or region.
Compliant DocumentsDocuments presented under a letter of credit that comply with all its terms and conditions. The banks are only obliged to pay the beneficiary if documents are totally compliant.
Compound InterestInterest that is earned both on the initial principal and on interest earned on the initial principal in previous periods. The interest earned in one period becomes in effect part of the principal in a following period.
Compound ValueValue of a sum after investing it over one or more periods. Also called future value.
CompoundingProcess of reinvesting each interest payment to earn more interest. Compounding is based on the idea that interest itself becomes principal and therefore also earns interest in subsequent periods.
Confirming BankBank that adds its payment undertaking to a letter of credit.
ConsigneeParty to whom goods are to be delivered.
ConsignmentDelivery of merchandise from an exporter (the consignor) to an agent (the consignee) under agreement that the consignee sells the merchandise of the account of the consignor, while the consignor retains title to the goods until the consignee sells them.
Consolidated IncomeThe sum of income across all of the multinational corporation’s domestic and foreign subsidiaries.
ConsolidationA form of corporate reorganization in which two firms pool their assets and liabilities to form a new company.
Corporate GovernanceThe way in which major stakeholders exert control over the modern corporation.
Correspondent BankA bank that, in its own country, handles the business of a foreign bank.
Country RiskThe political and financial risks of conducting business in a particular foreign country.
Coupon SwapA fixed-for-floating interest rate swap.
Credit Risk InsuranceInsurance that covers the risk of non-payment for delivered goods.
Consular StatementA document required by some foreign countries, describing a shipment of goods and showing information such as the consignor, consignee, and value of shipment. Certified by a consular official of the foreign country, it is used by the country's officials
Contingency InsuranceContingency insurance protects the exporter in any situation in which exporter responsibility relied on the buyer to insure, but sustained a loss because of inadequate coverage from that source. It will cover situations in which the FOB endorsement.
Contingent ClaimClaim whose value is directly dependent on, or is contingent on, the value of its underlying assets. For example, the debt and equity securities issued by a firm derive their value from the total value of the firm.
Continuous CompoundingInterest compounded continuously, every instant, rather than at fixed intervals.
Continuous Quotation SystemA trading system in which buy and sell orders are matched with market makers as the orders arrive, ensuring liquidity in individual shares.
Contract ManufacturingA firm allowing another firm to manufacture a pre-specified product.
Contribution MarginAmount that each additional product, such as a jet engine, contributes to after-tax profit of the whole project: (Sales price - Variable cost) X (1 - T), where T is the corporate tax rate.
Controlled Foreign Corporation (CFC)In the U.S. tax code, a foreign corporation owned more than 50 percent either in terms of market value or voting power.
Convertible BondsBonds sold with a conversion feature that allows the holder to convert the bond into common stock on or prior to a conversion date and at a pre specified conversion price.
Convertible CurrencyA currency that can be traded for other currencies at will.
Convex Tax ScheduleA tax schedule in which the effective tax rate is greater at high levels of taxable income than at low levels of taxable income. Such a schedule results in progressive taxation.
Corporate CultureThe set of values, beliefs, relationships between individuals and functions that guide the decisions of a company to achieve its objectives.
Corporate Social ResponsibilityThe responsibilities that corporations (including MNCs) have to workers and their families, to consumers, to investors, and to the natural environment.
CorporationForm of business organization that is created as a distinct "legal person" composed of one or more actual individuals or legal entities. Primary advantages of a corporation include limited liability, ease of ownership, transfer, and perpetual succession.
CorrelationA measure of the co variability of two assets that is scaled for the standard deviations of the assets (rAB = sAB / sAsB such that -1 < rAB < +1).
Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)A ranking of countries by level of corruption that is researched and published by Transparency International (TI), the world's leading non-governmental organization dedicated to fighting corruption.
Cost and Freight(C&F)A pricing term that indicates that the cost of the goods and freight charges are included in the quoted price.
Counter CreditAnother name for back-to-back letter of credit.
Counter TradeThe sale of goods or services that are paid for in whole or part by the transfer of goods or services from a foreign country.
CouponThe stated interest on a debt instrument.
CovarianceA measure of the co variability of two assets (sAB = sAsB rAB).
Cover NoteInsurance document evidencing that insurance cover for a consignment has been taken out, but not giving full details.
Cross-HedgeA futures hedge using a currency that is different from, but closely related to, the currency of the underlying exposure.
Cost of Equity CapitalThe required return on the company's common stock in capital markets. It is also called the equity holders' required rate of return because it is what equity holders can expect to obtain in the capital market. It is a cost from the firm's perspective.
Countervailing DutiesDuties levied on an imported good that has been unfairly subsidized by a foreign government. Imposing duties on the good is meant to raise the product's price to a "fair market value".
CTDWTO Committee on Trade and Development
CultureCollective mental paradigms that a society imparts to individuals in the form of behavior patterns, shared values, norms and institutions.
Cumulative Translation Adjustment (CTA)An equity account under FAS #52 that accumulates gains or losses caused by translation accounting adjustments.
Currency (Foreign Exchange) RiskThe risk of unexpected changes in foreign currency exchange rates.
Currency Coupon SwapA fixed-for-floating rate no amortizing currency swap traded primarily through international commercial banks.
Currency Cross-HedgeA hedge of currency risk using a currency that is correlated with the currency in which the underlying exposure is denominated.
Currency of ReferenceThe currency that is being bought or sold. It is most convenient to place the currency of reference in the denominator of a foreign exchange quote.
Currency OptionA contract giving the option holder the right to buy or sell an underlying currency at a specified price and on a specified date. The option writer (seller) holds the obligation to fulfill the other side of the contract.
Currency SwapA contractual agreement to exchange a principal amount of two different currencies and, after a prearranged length of time, to give back the original principal. Interest payments in each currency are also typically swapped during the life of the agreement
Current AccountA measure of a country’s international trade in goods and services.
Current Account BalanceA broad measure of import-export activity that includes services, travel and tourism, transportation, investment income and interest, gifts, and grants along with the trade balance on goods.
Custom UnionA form of regional economic integration group that eliminates tariffs among member nations and establishes common external tariffs.
Customhouse BrokerA person or firm obtains the license from the treasury department of its Country when required, and help clients (importers) to enter and declare goods through customs.
CustomsThe authorities designated to collect duties levied by a country on imports and exports.
CarnetA customs document permitting the holder to carry or send merchandise temporarily into certain foreign countries without paying duties or posting bonds.
Cash with Order (C.W.O.)Payment for goods in which the buyer pays when ordering and in which the transaction is binding on both parties.
Certificate of InspectionA document certifying that merchandise was in good condition immediately prior to its shipment.
Cost And Freight (C & F)A pricing term indicating that the cost of the goods and freight charges are included in the quoted price.
Charter PartyWritten contract between the owner of a vessel and a "chartered" who rents use of the vessel or a part of its freight space.
Cost and Insurance (C & I)A pricing term indicating that the cost of the product and insurance are included in the quoted price.
Cost, Insurance, FreightA pricing term indicating that the cost of the goods, insurance, and freight are included in the quoted price.
Clean DraftA draft to which no documents have been attached.
Collection PapersAll documents submitted to a buyer for the purpose of receiving payment for a shipment.
Commercial AttachmentThe commerce expert on the diplomatic staff of his/her country's embassy or large consulate.
Commercial InvoiceAn itemized list of goods shipped, usually among an exporter's COLLECTION PAPERS.
Common CarrierAn individual, partnership, or corporation that transports persons or goods for compensation.
Confirmation of Letter of CreditA letter of credit, issued by a foreign bank, whose validity has been confirmed by a Nationalized Indian bank.
ConsignmentDelivery of merchandise from an exporter (consignor) to an agent (consignee) under agreement that the agent sell the merchandise for the account of the exporter.
Constructive TransferA legal fiction which permits acceptance of a Customs entry for merchandise in a zone before its physical transfer to the Customs territory.
Consular InvoiceA document, required by some foreign countries, describing a shipment of goods and showing information such as the consignor, consignee, and value of the shipment.
Convertible CurrencyA currency that can be bought and sold for other currencies at will.
Corporation (Private)Any corporation which is organized for the purpose of establishing, operating and maintaining a foreign-trade zone and which is chartered under a special act of the State within which it is to operate such a zone.
Corporation (Public)A State, political subdivision thereof, a municipality, a public agency of a State, political subdivision thereof, or municipality, or a corporate municipal instrumentality of one or more States.
Correspondent BankA bank that, in its own country, handles the business of a foreign bank.
Counter TradeThe sale of goods or services that are paid in whole or in part by the transfer of goods or services from a foreign country.
Credit Risk InsuranceInsurance designed to cover risks of nonpayment for delivered goods.
Customs TerritoryTerritory of the India in which the general tariff laws of the India apply.
Custom House Agent (CHA)An individual or firm licensed to enter and clear goods through Customs.

Glossary of EXIM International Trade Terms Starting with-D

Dealing Desk or Trading DeskThe desk at an international bank that trades spot and forward foreign exchange.
Debt capacityThe amount of debt that a firm chooses to borrow to support a project.
Debt-for-Equity SwapA swap agreement to exchange equity (debt) returns for debt (equity) returns over a prearranged length of time.
Decision TreesA graphical analysis of sequential decisions and the likely outcomes of those decisions.
Deferred Payment CreditA type of letter of credit which provides for payment some time after presentation of the shipping documents by the exporter.
DevaluationThe official lowering of the value of one country's currency in terms of one or more foreign currencies.
Developing Country (DCs)A country that is in the process of becoming industrialized; the poorer nations of the world.
Deliverable InstrumentThe asset underlying a derivative security. For a currency option, the deliverable instrument is determined by the options exchange and is either spot currency or an equivalent value in futures contracts.
Delta-Cross-HedgeA futures hedge that has both currency and maturity mismatches with the underlying exposure.
Delta-HedgeA futures hedge using a currency that matches the underlying exposure and a maturity date that is different from, but preferably close to, the maturity of the underlying exposure.
Demand ManagementA business process with the intention to coordinate and influence all sources of demand for a firm’s products.
Depository ReceiptA derivative security issued by a foreign borrower through a domestic trustee representing ownership in the deposit of foreign shares held by the trustee.
DepreciationA decrease in a currency value relative to another currency in a floating exchange rate system.
Derivative SecurityA financial security whose price is derived from the price of another asset.
DevaluationA decrease in a currency value relative to another currency in a fixed exchange rate system.
Developed CountriesThe richer, more industrialized countries in the world.
DFIDDepartment for International Development (UK)
Difference CheckThe difference in interest payments that is exchanged between two swap counter parties.
Digital DivideThe digital divide refers to the widening technological gap between the richer and the poorer countries of the world.
Direct Costs of Financial DistressCosts of financial distress that are directly incurred during bankruptcy or liquidation proceedings.
Direct ExportingMarketer takes direct responsibility for its products abroad by selling them directly to foreign customers or through local representatives in foreign markets.
Direct Financing LeaseA non-leveraged lease by a lesser in which the lease meets any of the definitional criteria of a capital lease, plus certain additional criteria.
Direct Product ProfitabilityMeasuring the direct costs associated with handling a product from the warehouse until a customer buys from the retail store.
Direct TermsThe price of a unit of foreign currency in domestic currency terms, such as INR 45.70/USD for a India resident. (Contrast with indirect quote.)
DiscountIf a bond is selling below its face value, it is said to sell at a discount.
Discounted Cash FlowA valuation methodology that discounts expected future cash flows at a discount rate appropriate for the risk, currency, and maturity of the cash flows.
Discounted PaybackThe length of time needed to recoup the present value of an investment; sometimes used when investing in locations with high country risk.
Discounted Payback Period RuleAn investment decision rule in which the cash flows are discounted at an interest rate and the payback rule is applied on these discounted cash flows.
DiscountingCalculating the present value of a future amount. The process is the opposite of compounding.
Discretionary ReservesBalance sheet accounts that are used in some countries to temporarily store earnings from the current year or the recent past.
Discriminatory PricingThe practice that selling a product or service at different prices that do not reflect a proportional difference in costs.
DispatchAn amount paid by a vessel's operator to a charter if loading or unloading is completed in less time than stipulated in the charter party.
DistributorA Foreign agent who sells for a supplier directly and maintains an inventory of the supplier’s product.
Diversifiable (unique) (unsystematic) riskA risk that specifically affects a single asset or a small group of assets. Also called unique or unsystematic risk.
DocDepartment of Commerce (USA)
Dock ReceiptA receipt issued by an ocean carrier to acknowledge receipt of a shipment at the carrier's dock or warehouse.
Dock StatementA receipt issued by an ocean carrier to acknowledge the receipt of a shipment at the carrier's dock or warehouse facilities.
Domestic BondsBonds issued and traded within the internal market of a single country and denominated in the currency of that country.
Domestic LiquidityThe aggregate of money supply, quasi-money or savings and time deposits, and deposit substitutes.
Draft (trade bill, bill of exchange)A means of payment whereby a drawer (the importer) instructs a drawee (either the importer or its commercial bank) to pay the payee (the exporter).
DSBDispute Settlement Body
DSPDispute Settlement Panel
DSUDispute Settlement Understanding
Dual PricingThe practice of selling identical products in different markets for different prices.
DumpingSelling goods or merchandise in another country at a price below the price at which the same merchandise is sold in the home market or selling such merchandise below the costs incurred in production and shipment. Dumping is an illegal trade practice.
DutyA tax imposed on imports by the customs authority of a country.
DGFTDirectorate General of Foreign Trade, which is headed by the Director General of Foreign Trade. The office of the DGFT is responsible for formulating and execution of Foreign Trade Policy, including licensing. Formerly (till 1991), was known as the Chief
Duty Exemption/scheme Duty Free Import of InputsAllows duty-free import of inputs for exports under Advance Licence, Duty Entitlement Pass Book (DEPB) and Duty Free Replenishment Certificate (DFRC) Scheme.
DEPBRefers to the Duty Entitlement Pass Book to neutralise the incidence of basic customs duty on the import content of export product. This is provided by way of grant of duty credit against the export product at specified rates. The DEPB Scheme
DFRCRefers to the Duty Free Replenishment Certificate Scheme which was introduced from 1/4/2000 replacing. Transferable Advance Licensing Scheme. The scheme is available to merchant exporters as well as to manufacturer exporters. However,
Deemed ExportsRefers to those transactions in which the goods supplied do not leave the country and the payment for the goods is received by the supplier in India.
Date DraftA draft that matures in a specified number of days after the date it is issued, without regard to the date of "ACCEPTANCE".
DeactivisationVoluntary discontinuation of the activation of an entire zone or subzone by the grantee or operator.
DefaultAn act or omission that will result in a claim for duties, taxes, charges or liquidated damages under the FTZ Operator's Bond
Deferred Payments CreditType of "LETTER OF CREDIT" providing for payment some time after presentation of shipping documents by exporter.
Destination Control StatementAny of various statements that the U.S. Government requires to be displayed on export shipments and that specify the destinations for which export of the shipment has been authorized.
DevaluationThe official lowering of the value of one country's currency in terms of one or more foreign currencies.
Discrepancy - Letter of CreditWhen documents presented do not conform to the letter of credit.
Documentary Against Acceptance (D/A)Instructions given by a shipper to a bank indicating that documents transferring title to goods should be delivered to the buyer only upon the buyer's acceptance of the attached draft.
DraftAn unconditional order in writing from one person (the drawer) to another (the drawee), directing the drawee to pay a specified amount to a named drawer at a fixed or determinable future date.
DrawbackArticles manufactured or produced in the India with the use of imported components or raw materials and later exported are entitled to a refund of the duty charged on the imported products or components.
DraweeThe individual or firm on whom a draft is drawn and who owes the stated amount.
DrawerThe individual or firm that issues or signs a draft and thus stands to receive payment of the stated amount from the drawee.
DumpingExporting/Importing merchandise into a country below the costs incurred in production and shipment.
DutyA tax imposed on imports by the customs authority of a country.

Glossary of Export Import Trade Terms Starting with-E

Earnings Response CoefficientThe relation of stock returns to earnings surprises around the time of corporate earnings announcements.
Eclectic ParadigmA theory of the multinational firm that posits three types of advantage benefiting the multinational corporation: ownership-specific, location-specific, and market internalisation advantages.
Economic ExposureChange in the value of a corporation’s assets or liabilities as a result of changes in currency values.
Economic FreedomEconomic freedom occurs when individuals and businesses make most of the economic decisions in an economy.
Economic IntegrationThe integration of commercial and financial activities among countries through the abolishment of economic discrimination.
Economic UnionA group that combines the economic characteristics of a common market with some degree of harmonization of monetary and fiscal policies.
Economic Value AddedA method of performance evaluation that adjusts accounting performance with a charge reflecting investors’ required return on investment.
Economies of ScaleAchieving lower average cost per unit through a larger scale of production.
Economies of Vertical IntegrationAchieving lower operating costs by bringing the entire production chain within the firm rather than contracting through the marketplace.
Effective Annual Interest Ratethe interest rate as if it were compounded once per time period rather than several times per period.
Effective Annual YieldCalculated as (1+i/n)n, where i is the stated annual interest rate and n is the number of compounding periods per year. (Contrast with bond equivalent yield and money market yield.)
Efficient FrontierThe mean-variance efficient portion of the investment opportunity set.
Efficient MarketA market in which prices reflect all relevant information.
EmbargoA type of economic sanction that totally disallows the imports of a specific product or all products from a specific country.
Emerging MarketAn emerging market has a very high growth rate, which yields enormous market potential. It is distinguished by the recent progress it has made in economic liberalization.
Emerging Stock MarketsThe stock markets of emerging economies. These markets typically have higher expected returns than established markets but also higher risk.
Employment RateThe ratio, in percent, of the number of employed persons to total labor force.
Endogenous UncertaintyPrice or input cost uncertainty that is within the control of the firm, such as when the act of investing reveals information about price or input cost.
EngagementThe assumption of payment responsibility in respect of a letter of credit, e.g.
Equity-Linked EurobondsA Eurobond with a convertibility option or warrant attached. Eurobonds: Fixed rate Eurocurrency deposits and loans and Eurocurrencies with longer maturities than five years.
ErosionCash-flow amount transferred to a new project from customers and sales of other products of the firm.
EuroThe single currency of the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) introduced in January 1999. EMU members are Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain.
EurobondA bond that is denominated in a currency other than that of the country of issue.
EurocurrenciesDeposits and loans denominated in one currency and traded in a market outside the borders of the country issuing that currency (like : Eurodollars).
Eurocurrency MarketA money market for currencies held in the form of deposits in countries other than that where the currency is issued.
EurodollarsDollar-denominated deposits held in a country other than the United States.
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)One of four major regional development banks currently operating in the global economy.
European Currency Unit (ECU)A trade-weighted basket of currencies in the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) of the European Union.
European Exchange ate Mechanism (ERM)The exchange rate system used by countries in the European Union in which exchange rates are pegged within bands around an ERM central value.
European Monetary System (EMS)An exchange rate system based on cooperation between European Union central banks.
European OptionAn option that can be exercised only at expiration. (Contrast with American option.)
European TermsA foreign exchange quotation that states the foreign currency price of one U.S. dollar. (Contrast with American terms.)
European Union (EU)An intergovernmental organization which coordinates foreign, economic, and judicial policy among its 25 member nations.
Exchange RateThe price of one currency in terms of another, i.e. the number of units of one currency that may be exchanged for one unit of another currency.
Exchange RiskThe risk that losses may result from the changes in the relative values of different currencies.
Exercise PriceThe price at which an option can be exercised (also called the striking price).
Exim BankExport-Import Bank of the India. Provides guarantees of working capital loans for Indian exporters, guarantees the repayment of loans or makes loans to foreign purchasers of Indian goods and services.
Exogenous UncertaintyPrice or input cost uncertainty that is outside the control of the firm.
Expiry DateThe date when a letter of credit is no longer valid - i.e. the date beyond which it cannot be used.
Explicit TaxA tax that is explicitly collected by a government; includes income, withholding, property, sales, and value-added taxes and tariffs.
ExportAny resource, intermediate good, or final good or service that producers in one country sell to buyers in another country.
Export Management CompanyA foreign or domestic company that acts as a sales agent and distributor for domestic exporters in international markets.
Export Management CompanyA private firm that transacts export business on behalf of its client companies in return for a commission, salary, or retainer.
Export BrokerAn individual or firm that helps to locate and introduce buyers and seller in international business for a commission but does not take part in actual sales transaction.
Export LicenseA general export license covers the exportation of goods not restricted under the terms of a validated export license. No formal application or written authorization is needed to ship exports under a general export license.
Export RestraintsQuantitative restrictions imposed by exporting countries to limit exports to specified foreign markets, usually as a follow-up to formal or informal agreements reached with importing countries.
Export SubsidiesAny form of government payment that helps an exporter or manufacturing concern to lower its export costs.
Export Trading Company (ETC)A company that facilitates the export of goods and services. An ETC can either act as the export department for producers or take title to the product and export for its own account.
ExpropriationA specific type of political risk in which a government seizes foreign assets.
External MarketA market for financial securities that are placed outside the borders of the country issuing that currency.
ExtraterritorialityA government practice which applies its laws outside its territorial boundaries.
Exim PolicyRefers to Export and Import (Exim) Policy. Exim Policy has got incorporated into the comprehensive Foreign Trade Policy, which was announced by the Commerce & Industry Minister on 31st August, 2004.
EPZs/EOUsEPZs means Export Processing Zones which are special enclaves, separated from the Domestic Tariff Area (DTA), to provide an internationally competitive duty-free environment for export production. EOU means Export Oriented Units.
E-CommerceRefers to electronic commerce. In the context of Foreign Trade Policy, e-commerce relates to electronic filing and processing of applications etc.
EPCGEPCG refers to the Export Promotion Capital Goods (EPCG) Scheme, which gives the manufacturer facility for import of capital goods for export production at concessional rate of duty (5 per cent) against certain level of export .
Exchange PermitA government permit sometimes required by the importer's government to enable the importer to convert his or her own country's currency into foreign currency with which to pay a seller in another country.
Exchange RateThe price of one currency in terms of another, i.e., the number of units of one currency that may be exchanged for one unit of another currency.
ExhibitionThe showing of merchandise within a zone, usually to prospective buyers.
Export Commission HouseAn organization which, for a commission, acts as a purchasing agent for a foreign buyer.
Export LicenseA government document that permits the "Licensee" to engage in the export of designated goods to certain destinations.

Glossary of Export Trade Terms Starting with-F

Face ValueThe value of a bond that appears on its face. Also referred to as par value or principal.
Factor ModelA model that assumes a linear relation between an asset’s expected return and one or more systematic risk factors.
FactoringSale of an accounts receivable balance to buyers (factors) that are willing and able to bear the costs and risks of credit and collections.
Financial (Capital) StructureThe proportion of debt and equity and the particular forms of debt and equity chosen to finance the assets of the firm.
Financial ContagionThe spread of a financial crisis from one country or region to other countries or regions.
Financial EngineeringThe process of innovation by which new financial products are created.
Financial InnovationThe process of designing new financial products, such as exotic currency options and swaps.
Financial MarketsMarkets for financial assets and liabilities.
Financial Price RiskThe risk of unexpected changes in a financial price, including currency (foreign exchange) risk, interest rate risk, and commodity price risk.
Financial RiskFinancial risk refers to unexpected events in a country’s financial, economic, or business life.
Financial StrategyThe way in which the firm pursues its financial objectives.
Fixed CostA cost that is fixed in total for a given period of time and for given volume levels. It is not dependent on the amount of goods or services produced during the period.
Financial PolicyThe corporation’s choices regarding the debt-equity mix, currencies of denomination, maturity structure, method of financing investment projects, and hedging decisions with a goal of maximizing the value of the firm to some set of stakeholders.
First-to-Market AdvantageAlso know as "first-mover advantage." The idea of first-mover advantage is that the initial occupant of a strategic position or niche (market segment) gains access to resources and capabilities that a follower cannot match.
Fixed Exchange Rate SystemAn exchange rate system in which governments stand ready to buy and sell currency at official exchange rates.
Fixed Forward ContractCurrency is bought or sold at a given future date.
Floating Currency SystemAn exchange rate system under which a government is not obligated to declare that its currency is convertible into a fixed amount of another currency.
Floating Exchange RateAn exchange rate system in which currency values are allowed to fluctuate according to supply and demand forces in the market without direct interference by government authorities.
FoB EndorsementUsed with FOB, FAS, C&F, or CFR (but not CIF) quotations, FOB sales endorsement to an open marine policy can cover transit risk from the point of origin until title transfers. In these instances, the exporter relies on the importer to insure.
Force MajeureThe title of a standard clause in marine contracts exempting the parties for non-fulfillment of their obligations as a result of conditions beyond their control, such as Acts of God, war.
Foreign AidA grant of money, technical assistance, capital equipment, or other assistance typically extended by richer nations to poorer nations.
Foreign BondsBonds that are issued in a domestic market by a foreign borrower, denominated in domestic currency, marketed to domestic residents, and regulated by the domestic authorities.
Foreign BranchA foreign affiliate that is legally a part of the parent firm. In the U.S. tax code, foreign branch income is taxed as it is earned in the foreign country.
Foreign DebtMoney owed by a nation to foreign investors, banks, or governments.
Foreign Direct investment (FDI)The act of building productive capacity directly in a foreign country.
Foreign Equity RequirementsInvestment rules that limit foreign ownership to a minority holding is a company.
Foreign ExchangeCurrency of another country, or a financial instrument that facilitates payment from one currency to another.
Foreign Exchange (Currency) RiskThe risk of unexpected changes in foreign currency exchange rates.
Foreign Exchange BrokerBrokers serving as matchmakers in the foreign exchange market that do not put their own money at risk.
Foreign Exchange DealerA financial institution making a market in foreign exchange.
Foreign Exchange MarketsNetworks of commercial banks, investment banks, and other financial institutions that convert, buy, and sell currencies in the global economy.
Foreign Trade ZoneA physical area in which the government allows firms to delay or avoid paying tariffs on imports.
Foreign-Source IncomeIncome earned from foreign operations.
ForfaitingA form of factoring in which large, medium- to long-term receivables are sold to buyers (forfaiters) that are willing and able to bear the costs and risks of credit and collections.
Forward ContractA commitment to exchange a specified amount of one currency for a specified amount of another currency on a specified future date.
Forward DiscountA currency whose nominal value in the forward market is lower than in the spot market. (Contrast with forward premium.)
Forward MarketA market for forward contracts in which trades are made for future delivery according to an agreed-upon delivery date, exchange rate, and amount.
Forward ParityWhen the forward rate is an unbiased predictor of future spot exchange rates.
Forward PremiumA currency whose nominal value in the forward market is higher than in the spot market. (Contrast with forward discount.)
Franchise AgreementAn agreement in which a domestic company (the franchiser) licenses its trade name and or business system to an independent company (the franchisee) in a foreign market.
FranchisingA parent company grants another independent entity the privilege to do business in a pre-specified manner, including manufacturing, selling products, marketing technology and other business approach.
Free Cash FlowCash flow after all positive-NPV projects have been exhausted in the firm’s main line of business.
Free PortAn area such as a port city into which merchandise may legally be moved without payment of duties.
Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA)A proposed hemispheric trade zone that would cover all of the countries in North, South, and Latin America. The FTAA is highly controversial.
Free Trade ZoneAn area designated by the government to which goods may be imported for processing and subsequent export on duty-free basis. Merchandise may be stored, used or manufactured in the zone and re-exported without duties being paid.
Freely Floating Exchange Rate SystemAn exchange rate system in which currency values are allowed to fluctuate according to supply and demand forces in the market without direct interference by government authorities.
Freight ForwarderAn independent business that handles export shipment on behalf of the shipper without vested interest in the products. A freight forwarder is a good source of information and assistance on export regulations and documentation.
Freight Shippers (Freight Forwarders)Agents used to coordinate the logistics of transportation.
Frequency DistributionThe organization of data to show how often certain values or ranges of values occur.
Full Payout LeaseA lease in which the lesser recovers, through the lease payments, all costs incurred in the lease plus an acceptable rate of return, without any reliance upon the leased equipment's future residual value.
Fundamental AnalysisA method of predicting exchange rates using the relationships of exchange rates to fundamental economic variables such as GNP growth, money supply, and trade balances.
Future ValueValue of a sum after investing it over one or more periods. Also called compound value.
Futures Commission MerchantA brokerage house that is authorized by a futures exchange to trade with retail clients.
Futures ContractA commitment to exchange a specified amount of one currency for a specified amount of another currency at a specified time in the future. Futures contracts are periodically marked-to-market,
FTPRefers to Foreign Trade Policy, announced by the Commerce & Industry Minister on 31st August, 2004. It is a 5-year Policy (September 2004 -- March 2009), which takes effect from September 1, 2004.
FTWZFree Trade and Warehousing Zone, a new scheme announced in the Foreign Trade Policy 2004-2009.
FoBFob means Free on Board - i.e., when an exporter delivers goods "free on board", he pays all charges involved in getting them actually onto the ship.
First in-First Out (FIFO)An accounting method based on an assumption regarding the flow of goods that older stock is disposed of first, in accordance with good merchandising policy.
Force MajeureThe title of a standard clause in marine contracts exempting the parties for no fulfillment of their obligations as a result of conditions beyond their control, such as earthquakes, floods, or war.
Foreign ExchangeThe currency or credit instruments of a foreign country.
Foreign First (FOFI)An accounting method based on an assumption regarding the flow of goods that foreign status merchandise is disposed of first.
Foreign Sales AgentAn individual or firm that serves as the foreign representative of a domestic supplier and seeks sales abroad for the supplier.
Foreign-Trade Zone/Free Trade ZoneA port designated by the government of a country for duty-free entry of any non-prohibited goods. Merchandise may be stored, displayed, or used for manufacturing, etc., within the zone and re-exported without duties being paid.
Foreign -Trade Zones ActThe Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, (48 Stat. 998-1003; 19 U.S.C. 81a-81u) as amended.
Foul Bill of LadingA receipt of goods issued by a carrier with an indication that the goods were damaged when received.
Free Alongside(F.A.S.)A pricing term indicating that the quoted price includes the cost of delivering the goods alongside a designated vessel.
Free in (F.I.)A pricing term indicating that the charter of a vessel is responsible for the cost of loading and unloading goods from the vessel.
Free PortAn area such as a port city into which merchandise may be legally moved without payment of duties.
Freight ForwarderAn independent business which handles export shipments for compensation.

 Glossary of Import Trade Terms Starting with-G

G-7A formal organization of seven highly industrialized democracies: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
G-8The G-7 countries plus Russia.
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)A common set of accounting concepts, standards, and procedures by which financial statements are prepared.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)A post-World War II agreement designed to promote freer international trade among the nations of the world. The GATT was replaced by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1994.
Generalized Autoregressive conditional HeteroskedasticityA time series model in which returns at each instant of time are normally distributed but volatility is a function of recent history of the series.
Geocentric MultinationalA multinational in which the subsidiaries are neither satellites nor independent city states, but parts of a whole whose focus is on worldwide objectives as well as local objectives, each part making its unique contribution with its unique competence.
Global BondA bond that trades in the Eurobond market as well as in one or more national bond markets.
Global EconomyThe international network of individuals, businesses, governments, and multilateral organizations which collectively make production and consumption decisions.
GlobalizationA global movement to increase the flow of goods, services, people, real capital, and money across national borders in order to create a more integrated and interdependent world economy.
Gold Exchange StandardAn exchange rate system used from 1925 to 1931 in which the United States and England were allowed to hold only gold reserves while other nations could hold gold, U.S. dollars, or pounds sterling as reserves.
Gold StandardAn exchange rate system used prior to 1914 in which gold was used to settle national trade balances. Also called the classical gold standard.
GoodwillThe accounting treatment of an intangible asset such as the takeover premium in a merger or acquisition.
GradualismA steady and calculated approach to transforming an economy from communism to capitalism.
Gray-Market ImportsGray-market imports are parallel distribution of genuine goods by intermediaries other than authorized channel members.
GreenfieldA form of investment in which the firm designs and builds a new factory from scratch, starting with nothing but a
GreenmailBuying shares on the open market in the hope that the target’s business partners will buy back the shares at inflated prices.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)A measure of the market value of goods and services produced by a nation. Unlike Gross National Product, GDP excludes profits made by domestic firms overseas, as well as the share of reinvested earning in domestic firms' foreign-based operations.
Growing PerpetuityA constant stream of cash flows without end that is expected to rise indefinitely. For example, cash flows to the landlord of an apartment building might be expected to rise a certain percentage each year.
Growth OptionsThe positive-NPV opportunities in which the firm has not yet invested. The value of growth options reflects the time value of the firm’s current investment in real assets as well as the option value of the firm’s potential future investments.
Growth StocksStocks with high price/book or price/earnings ratios. Historically, growth stocks have had lower average returns than value stocks (stocks with low price/book or PE ratios) in a variety of countries.
Guideline LeaseA lease written under criteria established by the IRS to determine the availability of tax benefits to the lesser.
GATT/General Agreement on Tariffs And TradeA multilateral treaty intended to help reduce trade barriers between the signatory countries and to promote trade through tariff concessions.
GranteeA corporation to which the privilege of establishing, operating, and maintaining a foreign-trade zone has been granted by the Foreign-Trade Zones Board.
Gross WeightThe full weight of a shipment, including goods and packaging.

Glossary of Import Export  Trade Terms Starting with-H

Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS)A method of classification used by many countries to determine tariffs on imports.
Hedge QualityMeasured by the r-square in a regression of spot rate changes on futures price changes.
Hedge RatioThe ratio of derivatives contracts to the underlying risk exposure.
HedgingReducing the risk of a cash position by using the futures instruments to offset the price movement of the cash asset.
High-Withholding-Tax Interest IncomeIn the U.S. tax code, interest income that has been subject to a foreign gross withholding tax of 5 percent or more.
Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) InitiativeThe HIPC Inititiative is a major international response to the burdensome external debt held by the world's poorest, most indebted countries. It originated in 1996 as a joint undertaking of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
HedgeA position or operation that offsets an underlying exposure. For example, a forward currency hedge uses a forward currency contract to offset the exposure of an underlying position in a foreign currency. Hedges reduce the total variability of the combined
Hedge FundsPrivate investment partnerships with a general manager and a small number of limited partners.
Hedge PortfolioThe country-specific hedge portfolio in the International Asset Pricing Model serves as a store of value (like the risk-free asset in the CAPM) as well as a hedge against the currency risk of the market portfolio.
Historical VolatilityVolatility estimated from a historical time series.
Holding-Period ReturnThe rate of return over a given period.
Home Asset BiasThe tendency of investors to over invest in assets based in their own country.
Homogeneous ExpectationsIdea that all individuals have the same beliefs concerning future investments, profits, and dividends.
HyperinflationAn extremely high rate of inflation, often exceeding several hundred or several thousand percent, that causes a country's money to become practically worthless.
HysteresisThe behavior of firms that fail to enter markets that appear attractive and, once invested, persist in operating at a loss. This behavior is characteristic of situations with high entry and exit costs along with high uncertainty.

Glossary of Import Export International  Trade Terms Starting with-I

Implicit TaxLower (higher) before-tax required returns on assets that are subject to lower (higher) tax rates.
Implied VolatilityThe volatility that is implied by an option value given the other determinants of option value.
ImportAny resource, intermediate good, or final good or service that buyers in one country purchase from sellers in another country.
Import LicensesLicenses required by some countries to bring in a foreign-made good. In many cases, import licenses are also used by the issuing country to control the quantity of imported items.
In-the-Money OptionAn option that has value if exercised immediately.
Income BasketsIn the U.S. tax code, income is allocated to one of a number of separate income categories. Losses in one basket may not be used to offset gains in another basket.
Income StatementFinancial report that summarizes a firm's performance over a specified time period.
Incremental IRRIRR on the incremental investment from choosing a large project instead of a smaller project.
Indemnity ClauseA clause in which the one party indemnifies the other. In leasing, generally a clause whereby the lessee indemnifies the lesser from loss of tax benefits.
Independent ProjectA project whose acceptance or rejection is independent of the acceptance or rejection of other projects.
Index futuresA futures contract that allows investors to buy or sell an index (such as a foreign stock index) in the futures market.
Index optionsA call or put option contract on an index (such as a foreign stock market index).
Index swapA swap of a market index for some other asset (such as a stock-for-stock or debt-for-stock swap).
Indication pricing scheduleA schedule of rates for an interest rate or currency swap.
Indirect Costs of Financial DistressCosts of financial distress that are indirectly incurred prior to formal bankruptcy or liquidation.
Indirect CustomersThe end-users (e.g., consumers) of the products and services purchased from the wholesalers, retailers, and consignees -- the direct customers of the seller.
Indirect Diversification BenefitsDiversification benefits provided by the multinational corporation that are not available to investors through their portfolio investment.
Indirect ExportingExport products to foreign markets by using an intermediary, usually export trading company based in the exporter’s country.
Inflation RateThe general increase in the price level herein measured by the growth rate in the GNP Implicit Price Index or the general price deflator.
Informational EfficiencyWhether or not market prices reflect information and thus the true (or intrinsic) value of the underlying asset.
Integrated Financial MarketA market in which there are no barriers to financial flows and purchasing power parity holds across equivalent assets.
Intellectual PropertyMaterial or communicable result in forms of discoveries, inventions, designs and literary and art works of scientific, humanistic, literary, and artistic endeavor. It includes, but is not limited to, works in the form of scientific discoveries and invention.
Intellectual Property RightsPatents, copyrights, and proprietary technologies and processes that are the basis of the multinational corporation’s competitive advantage over local firms.
Inter-American Development Bank(IADM)A regional development bank designed to promote sustainable economic development in the Western Hemisphere. Its headquarters are located in Washington, D.C.
Interbank SpreadThe difference between a bank’s offer and bid rates for deposits in the Eurocurrency market.
Interest Rate RiskThe risk of unexpected changes in an interest rate.
Interest Rate SwapAn agreement to exchange interest payments for a specific period of time on a given principal amount. The most common interest rate swap is a fixed-for-floating coupon swap. The notional principal is typically not exchanged.
Intermediated MarketA financial market in which a financial institution (usually a commercial bank) stands between borrowers and savers.
IntermodalThe use of two or more modes of transportation to complete a cargo move; truck/rail/ship, or truck/air, for example.
Internal MarketA market for financial securities denominated in the currency of a host country and placed within that country.
Internal Rate of Return (IRR)A discount rate at which the net present value of an investment is zero. The IRR is a method of evaluating capital expenditure proposals.
International Asset Pricing Model (IAPM)The international version of the CAPM in which investors in each country share the same consumption basket and purchasing power parity holds.
International Monetary SystemThe global network of governmental and commercial institutions within which currency exchange rates are determined.
Intrinsic Value of an OptionThe value of an option if exercised immediately.
International Bank for Reconstruction and DevelopmentAlso called the World Bank, an international organization created at Breton Woods in 1944 to help in the reconstruction and development of its member nations.
International BondsBonds that are traded outside the country of the issuer. International bonds are either foreign bonds trading in a foreign national market or Eurobonds trading in the international market.
International Chamber of CommerceInternational non-governmental body concerned with promotion of trade and harmonization of trading practice. Responsible for drafting and publishing.
International Monetary Fund (IMF)An international organization designed to promote global economic stability and development. It compiles statistics on cross-border transactions and publishes a monthly summary of each country’s balance of payments.
Investment AgreementAn agreement specifying the rights and responsibilities of a host government and a corporation in the structure and operation of an investment project
Investment Opportunity SetThe set of possible investments available to an individual or corporation.
Investment PhilosophyThe investment approach-active or passive-pursued by an investment fund and its managers.
Input Output NormsThe norms which define the amount of input/inputs required to manufacture a unit of output.
ISO-9000Refers to international standards, laid down by the International Standards Organisation.
ITC(HS)Refers to Indian Trade Classification (Harmonized System). It is a system of classification of products for the purposes of export and import.
Import LicenseA document required and issued by some national governments authorizing the importation of goods into their individual countries.
Inland Bill of LadingA bill of lading used in transporting goods overland to the exporter's international carrier.
Irrevocable Letter of creditA letter of credit in which the specified payment is guaranteed by the bank if all terms and conditions are met by the drawee.

Glossary of Impex Trade Terms Starting with - J

Joint VentureAn agreement of two or more companies to pool their resources to execute a well-defined mission. Resource commitments, responsibilities, and earnings are shared according to a predetermined contractual formula.
Just In Time (JIT)An organization-wide practice that keeps the inventory to the minimum and provides customers the right goods or service at the right time.

 Glossary of Export Import Foreign Trade Terms Starting with - K

Kyoto ProtocolA multilateral environmental agreement; its goal is to control global warming by reducing greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere.
KeiretsuCollaborative groups of vertically and horizontally integrated firms with extensive share cross-holdings and with a major Japanese bank or corporation at the center.

Glossary of Export Import Trade Terms Starting with -L

LeaseA contract in which one party conveys the use of an asset to another party for a specific period of time at a predetermined rate.
Landed CostThe quoted or invoiced cost of a commodity, plus any inbound transportation charges.
Law of one Price (Purchasing Power Parity)The principle that equivalent assets sell for the same price. The law of one price is enforced in the currency markets by financial market arbitrage.
Lead ManagerThe lead investment bank in a syndicate selling a public securities offering.
Leading and LaggingReduction of transaction exposure through timing of cash flows within the corporation.
Lease RateThe periodic rental payment to a lesser for the use of assets. Others may define lease rate as the implicit interest rate in minimum lease payments.
Least-Developed Countries (LDCs)The poorest of the developing countries. They are characterized by a low gross national product per capita, a reliance on subsistence agriculture, rapid population growth, inadequate infrastructure.
Letter of Credit (L/C)A letter issued by an importer’s bank guaranteeing payment upon presentation of specified trade documents (invoice, bill of lading, inspection and insurance certificates, etc.).
Leveraged LeaseThe lesser provides an equity portion (usually 20 to 40 percent) of the equipment cost and lenders provide the balance on a nonrecourse debt basis.
LiberalizationThe process by which certain business activities become more market driven.
Location-Specific AdvantagesAdvantages (natural and created) that are available only or primarily in a single location.
London Interbank Bid Rate (LIBID)The bid rate that a Euro market bank is willing to pay to attract a deposit from another Euro market bank in London.
Long PositionA position in which a particular asset (such as a spot or forward currency) has been purchased.
License AgreementA sales agreement in which a domestic company (the licensor) allows a foreign company (the licensee) to market its products in a foreign country in return for royalties, fees, or other forms of compensation.
LicensingOne firm gives another firm a permission, which allows the latter to engage in an activity otherwise legally forbidden to it. Such activities usually involve the transfer of intellectual and proprietary knowledge in return for royalty as revenue.
Limited Flexibility Exchange Rate SystemThe International Monetary Fund’s name for an exchange rate system with a managed float.
Liquid MarketA market in which traders can buy or sell large quantities of an asset when they want and with low transactions costs.
LiquidityThe ease with which an asset can be exchanged for another asset of equal value.
Loanable FundsThe pool of funds from which borrowers can attract capital; typically categorized by currency and maturity.
London Interbank Offer Rate (LIBOR)The offer rate that a Euro market bank demands in order to place a deposit at (or, equivalently, make a loan to) another Euro market bank in London.
Letter of Credit(L/C)A document, issued by a bank per instructions by a buyer of goods, authorizing the seller to draw a specified sum of money under specified terms, usually the receipt by the bank of certain documents within a given time.
LicensingA business arrangement in which the manufacturer of a product grants permission to some other group or individual to manufacture that product in return for specified royalties.

Glossary of Export Trade Terms Starting with - M

ManifestDocument that lists in detail al the bills of lading issued by a carrier of its agent or master, i.e., a detailed summary of the total cargo of a vessel.
Macro Country RisksCountry (or political) risks that affect all foreign firms in a host country.
Management ContractAn agreement by which one firm allows another to manage its foreign activities on behalf of it. The managing firm is forbidden to make capital investment or financing decisions.
Managerial FlexibilityFlexibility in the timing and scale of investment provided by a real investment option.
MaquiladorasDuty-free assembly plants located mainly in the developing world. Maquiladoras are one type of foreign direct investment.
Margin AccountAn account maintained by an investor with a brokerage firm in which securities may be purchased by borrowing a portion of the purchase price from the brokerage, or may be sold short by borrowing the securities from the brokerage firm.
Margin RequirementA performance bond paid upon purchase of a futures contract that ensures the exchange clearinghouse against loss.
Market AccessThe extent to which a domestic industry can penetrate a related market in a foreign country. Access can be limited by tariffs or other non-trade barriers.
Market EconomyAn economy in which resource allocations, prices and other marketing decisions are primarily determined by the free market.
Market FailureA failure of arms-length markets to efficiently complete the production of a good or service. In the eclectic paradigm, the multinational corporation’s market internalization advantages take advantage of market failure.
Market Internalization AdvantagesAdvantages that allow the multinational corporation to internalize or exploit the failure of an arms-length market to efficiently accomplish a task.
Market MakerA financial institution that quotes bid (buy) and offer (sell) prices.
Market Model (One-Factor Market Model)The empirical version of the security market line: Rj = aj + bjRM + ej.
Market PortfolioA portfolio of all assets weighted according to their market values.
Market Risk PremiumThe risk premium on an average stock; (E[RM]-RF).
Market TimingAn investment strategy of shifting among asset classes in an attempt to anticipate which asset classes) will appreciate or depreciate during the coming period.
Market-Based Corporate Governance SystemA system of corporate governance in which the supervisory board represents a dispersed set of largely equity shareholders.
Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs)Environmental agreements negotiated by a number of countries.
Marketing MixThe set of marketing tools that the firm uses to pursue its marketing objectives in the target market. One of the most popular classifications of marketing mix tools is called the "4 P's" of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion.
Marking to MarketThe process by which changes in the value of futures contracts are settled daily.
Maturity DateThe date on which the last payment on a bond is due.
Mean-Variance EfficientAn asset that has higher mean return at a given level of risk (or lower risk at a given level of return) than other assets.
MercosurThe common market of the South, a customs union which includes Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay in a regional trade pact that reduces tariffs on intrapact trade by up to 90 percent. Bolivia and Chile are associate members.
MergerA form of corporate acquisition in which one firm absorbs another and the assets and liabilities of the two firms are combined.
Method of PaymentThe way in which a merger or acquisition is financed.
Micro Country RisksCountry risks that are specific to an industry, company, or project within a host country.
Micro CreditSmall loans, perhaps $50 or $100, that are extended to small businesses to finance a business start-up or other business activity.
Middle MarketA market segment generally represented by financing under $2 million. In leasing this sector is dominated by single investor leases.
Miller and Modigliani’s Irrelevance PropositionIf financial markets are perfect, then corporate financial policy (including hedging policy) is irrelevant.
Mixed TariffA combination of specific and ad valorem tariffs.
Monetary Assets and Liabilities(MAL)Assets and liabilities with contractual payoffs.
Money Market HedgeA hedge that replicates a currency forward contract through the spot currency and Eurocurrency markets.
Money Market YieldA bond quotation convention based on a 360-day year and semiannual coupons. (Contrast with bond equivalent yield.)
Money MarketsFinancial markets for debt securities that pay off in the short term (usually less than one year).
Money SupplyThe total amount of currency in circulation and peso deposits subject to check of the monetary system.
MonopolyExclusive control or possession by one group of the means of producing or selling goods or services.
More Flexible Exchange Rate SystemThe International Monetary Fund’s name for a floating exchange rate system.
Most Favored Nation (MFN)A status granted to one country by another; the granting country then accords the recipient's imports and exports the most favorable treatment that it accords any country.
Multinational CorporationA corporation with operations in more than one country.
Multinational NettingElimination of offsetting cash flows within the multinational corporation.
Mutually Exclusive Investment DecisionsInvestment decisions in which the acceptance of a project precludes the acceptance of one or more alternative projects.
ManipulationProcessing wherein merchandise is packed, unpacked, repacked, cleaned, sorted, graded or otherwise changed in condition but not manufactured.
ManufacturerGenerally, the production of articles for use from raw or prepared materials by substantially transforming such materials into new forms.
Marine InsuranceInsurance that compensates the owners of goods transported overseas in the event of loss that cannot be legally recovered from the carrier.
MarkingLetters, numbers, and other symbols on cargo packages to facilitate identification.
MerchandiseIncludes goods, wares, and chattels of every description except Prohibited Merchandise, building materials, production equipment and supplies for use in operation of a zone.
Merchandise, DomesticMerchandise which has been produced in the India and not exported therefrom.
Merchandise, ForeignImported Merchandise which has not been properly released from Customs custody into the Customs territory of the India.
Merchandise, FungibleMerchandise which for commercial purposes is identical and interchangeable in all situations.
Merchandise, Mixed StatusForeign Merchandise which has been combined with Domestic Merchandise in the zone.
Merchandise/Operations, ProhibitedMerchandise, the importation of which is prohibited by law on grounds of public policy or morals, or excluded by order of the Foreign-Trade Zones Board..
Merchandise/Operations, RestrictedMerchandise which may not be authorized for delivery from Customs custody without a special permit, or a waiver thereof by an agency of the Indian Government.

Glossary of EXIM  Trade Terms Starting with  - N

Net Currency ExposureExposure to foreign exchange risk after netting all intracompany cash flows.
National Tax PolicyThe way in which a nation chooses to allocate the burdens of tax collections across its residents.
National TreatmentA country accords no less favorable treatment to imported goods than it does to domestic goods.
NationalizationA process whereby privately owned companies are brought under state ownership and control. (Contrast with privatization.)
Negative-NPV Tie-in ProjectA negative (-) NPV infrastructure development project that a local government requires of a company pursuing a positive (+) NPV investment project elsewhere in the economy.
Net Asset ValueThe sum of the individual asset values in a closed-end mutual fund. Closed-end funds can sell at substantial premiums or discounts to their net asset values.
Net Exposed AssetsExposed assets less exposed liabilities. The term is used with market values or, in translation accounting, with book values.
Net Monetary AssetsMonetary assets less monetary liabilities.
Net PositionA currency position after aggregating and canceling all offsetting transactions in each currency, maturity, and security.
Net Present Value (NPV)The present value of future cash returns, discounted at the appropriate market interest rate, minus the present value of the cost of the investment.
Net Working CapitalCurrent assets minus current liabilities.
New ProtectionismRecent efforts to pressure national governments to exercise greater control over foreign trade and foreign direct investment.
Nominal Cash FlowA cash flow expressed in nominal terms if the actual dollars to be received (or paid out) are given.
Nominal Interest RateInterest rate unadjusted for inflation.
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)Special interest groups that operate in the global community.
Non-Tariff BarrierAn indirect measure used to discriminate against foreign manufacturers, for example, extensive inspection procedures for foreign imports that create barriers to entering the market.
Noncash ItemExpense against revenue that does not directly affect cash flow, such as depreciation and deferred taxes.
Non-Intermediated Debt MarketA financial market in which borrowers (governments and large corporations) appeal directly to savers for debt capital through the securities markets without using a financial institution as intermediary.
Non-Monetary Assets and LiabilitiesAssets and Liabilities with non-contractual payoffs.
Normal DistributionSymmetric bell-shaped frequency distribution that can be defined by its mean and standard deviation.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)A regional trade pact among the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
Notional PrincipalIn a swap agreement, a principal amount that is only notional and is not exchanged.
NFERefers to Net Foreign Exchange. Net Foreign Exchange earning is calculated as a percentage of exports (NFEP).
Non-Privileged Foreign (NPF)Foreign Merchandise or non-tax-paid domestic merchandise upon which the duty and applicable taxes will be determined at the time of entry from the zone for consumption.

Glossary of Export Business  Trade Terms Starting with - O

Offer (Ask) RatesThe rate at which a market maker is willing to sell the quoted asset.
Offering StatementIn the United States, a shortened registration statement required by the Securities and Exchange Commission on debt issues with less than a nine-month maturity.
Official Settlements Balance (Overall Balance)An overall measure of a country’s private financial and economic transactions with the rest of the world.
Offshore Financial Centers (OFCs)The many types of financial institutions that operate without financial supervision by governments or other agencies.
OligopolyA market dominated by so few sellers that action by any of them will impact both the price of the good and the competitors.
Open AccountThe seller delivers the goods to the buyer and then bills the buyer according to the terms of trade.
Open and Reform PolicyAn economic policy enacted by the Chinese government combining central planning with market-oriented reforms to increase productivity, living standards, and technological quality without exacerbating inflation, unemployment, and budget deficits.
Open-end FundA mutual fund in which the amount of money under management grows/shrinks as investors buy/sell the fund.
Operating Cash FlowEarnings before interest and depreciation minus taxes. It measures the cash flow generated form operations, not counting capital spending or working capital requirements.
Operating ExposureChanges in the value of real (no monetary) assets or operating cash flows as a result of changes in currency values.
Operating LeverageThe trade-off between fixed and variable costs in the operation of the firm.
Operational EfficiencyMarket efficiency with respect to how large an influence transactions costs and other market frictions have on the operation of a market.
OPICOverseas Private Investment Corporation. A US agency that assists US companies protect their investment against risk in a particular country besides providing other services.
Opportunity CostMost valuable alternative that is given up. The rate of return used in NPV computation is an opportunity interest rate.
Opportunity SetThe set of all possible investments.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)A group of 30 countries that meets regularly to discuss global issues and make appropriate economic and social policies.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)A producer cartel that produces and sells oil.
Out-of-the-Money OptionAn option that has no value if exercised immediately.
Outright QuoteA quote in which all of the digits of the bid and offer prices are quoted. (Contrast with points quote.)
OutsourcingA situation in which a firm's functions are performed or provided by a person or group from outside the company.
Overall Balance(See official settlements balance.)
Overall FTC limitationIn the U.S. tax code, a limitation on the FTC equal to foreign-source income times U.S. tax on worldwide income divided by worldwide income.
Ownership-Specific AdvantagesProperty rights or intangible assets, including patents, trademarks, organizational and marketing expertise, production technology and management, and general organizational abilities, that form the basis for the multinational’s advantage over local firms
Ocean Bill of LadingA bill of lading indicating that the exporter consigns a shipment to an int'l carrier for transportation to a specified foreign market.
On Board Bill of LadingA bill of lading in which a carrier certifies that goods have been placed on board a certain vessel.
Open AccountA trade arrangement in which goods are shipped to a foreign buyer without guarantee of payment.
Open Insurance PolicyA marine insurance policy that applies to all shipments made by an exporter over a period of time rather than to one shipment only.
OperatorA corporation, partnership, or person that operates a zone or sub zone under the terms of an agreement with the Grantee.
Operator's BondAll zone operators must submit to Customs a bond to assure compliance with Customs regulations.
Order Bill of LadingA negotiable bill of lading made out to the order of the shipper.

Glossary of Import Business Trade Terms Starting with -  P

Packing ListDocument listing the contents of a consignment of goods. May be called for on a letter of credit.
Parallel LoanA loan arrangement in which a company borrows in its home currency and then trades this debt for the foreign currency debt of a foreign counterpart.
PartnershipForm of business organization in which two or more co-owners form a business. In a general partnership each partner is liable for the debts of the partnership. Limited partnership permits some partners to have limited liability.
Passive IncomeIn the U.S. tax code, income (such as investment income) that does not come from active participation in a business.
PatentA government grant that gives inventors exclusive right of making, using, or selling the invention.
Payback Period RuleAn investment decision rule which states that all investment projects that have payback periods equal to or less than a particular cutoff period are accepted, and all those that pay off in more than the particular cutoff period are rejected.
Payoff ProfileA graph with the value of an underlying asset on the x-axis and the value of a position taken to hedge against risk exposure on the y-axis. Also used with changes in value. (Contrast with risk profile.)
Payout RatioProportion of net income paid out in cash dividends.
Pegged Exchange Rate SystemThe International Monetary Fund’s name for a fixed exchange rate system.
Pension LiabilitiesA recognition of future liabilities resulting from pension commitments made by the corporation. Accounting for pension liabilities varies widely by country.
Perfect Market AssumptionsA set of assumptions under which the law of one price holds. These assumptions include frictionless markets, rational investors, and equal access to market prices and information.
Periodic Call AuctionA trading system in which stocks are auctioned at intervals throughout the day.
PerpetuityA constant stream of cash flows without end. A British consol is an example.
PortfolioCombined holding of more than one stock, bond, real estate asset, or other asset by an investor.
Predatory PricingIt is a form of price discrimination that requires selling below cost with the intention of destroying competition. However, predatory pricing is against law.
Phytosanitary MeasureA piece of legislation, regulation, or procedure with the purpose of preventing the introduction or spread of pests. Phytosanitary procedures often include the performance of inspections, tests, surveillance, or other treatments.
Points QuoteAn abbreviated form of the outright quote used by traders in the interbank market.
Political RiskThe risk that a sovereign host government will unexpectedly change the rules of the game under which businesses operate. Political risk includes both macro and micro risks.
Power DistanceThe extent to which a society accepts hierarchical differences.
PremiumIf a bond is selling above its face value, it is said to sell at a premium.
Present ValueThe value of a future cash stream discounted at the appropriate market interest rate.
Present Value FactorFactor used to calculate an estimate of the present value of an amount to be received in a future period.
Price Elasticity of DemandThe sensitivity of quantity sold to a percentage change in price; -%changeQ/%changeP.
Price UncertaintyUncertainty regarding the future price of an asset.
Private PlacementA securities issue privately placed with a small group of investors rather than through a public offering.
PrivatizationA process whereby publicly owned enterprises are sold to private investors. (Contrast with nationalization.)
Proforma InvoiceAn invoice provided by a supplier prior to the shipment of merchandise, informing the buyer of the kinds and quantities of goods to be sent their value and important specifications.
Product Cycle TheoryProduct cycle theory views the products of the successful firm as evolving through four stages: (1) infancy, (2) growth, (3) maturity, and (4) decline.
Product Life Cycle (PLC)The complete life of a product, from early planning through sales build-up, maximum sales, declining sales, and withdrawal of the product. Product life cycle lengths and types can vary depending on the type of product, the frequency of replacement.
Production Possibilities ScheduleThe maximum amount of goods (for example, food and clothing) that a country is able to produce given its labor supply.
Production SharingProduction sharing occurs when a producer chooses to make a product in stages - and in different countries - so that the firm can employ the lowest-cost resources in the production process.
Profitability IndexA method used to evaluate projects. It is the ratio of the present value of expected future cash flows after initial investment divided by the amount of the initial investment.
Progressive TaxationA convex tax schedule that results in a higher effective tax rate on high income levels than on low-income levels.
Project FinancingA way to raise nonrecourse financing for a specific project characterized by the following: (1) the project is a separate legal entity and relies heavily on debt financing and (2) the debt is contractually linked to the cash flow generated by the project.
Promissory NoteFinancial document in which the buyer agrees to make payment to the seller at a specified time.
Proprietary KnowledgePrivate or exclusive knowledge that cannot be legally used or duplicated by competitors.
ProspectusA brochure that describes a mutual fund’s investment objectives, strategies, and position limits.
ProtectionismProtection of local industries through tariffs, quotas, and regulations that discriminate against foreign businesses.
Public Securities OfferingA securities issue placed with the public through an investment or commercial bank.
Pure Discount BondBonds that pay no coupons and only pay back the face value at maturity. Also referred to as "bullets" and "zeros."
Psychic DistanceThe similarities or lack thereof between country markets. This concept takes into account geographic distance, cultural similarities, linguistic aspects, legal systems and methods of conducting business.
Public RelationsA variety of programs designed to promote and/or protect a company's image or its individual products.
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)The principle that equivalent assets sell for the same price. Purchasing power parity is a measurement of a currency's value based on the buying power within its own domestic economy.
Put OptionThe right to sell the underlying asset at a specified price and on a specified date.
Put-Call ParityThe relation of the value of a long call, a short put, the exercise price, and the forward price at expiration; CallTd/f - PutTd/f + Kd/f = FTd/f.
Packing ListA list showing the number and kinds of items being shipped, as well as other information needed for transportation purposes.
Postal Parcel ReceiptThe postal authorities' signed acknowledgment of delivery to receiver of a shipment made by parcel post.
Private Export Funding Corporation(PEFCO)Lends to foreign buyers to finance exports from U.S.
Perils of the SeaA marine insurance term used to designate heavy weather, stranding, lightning, collision, and seawater damage.
Phytosanitary Inspection CertificateA certificate, issued by the Indian Government Department of Agriculture to satisfy import regulations for foreign countries, indicating that a India shipment has been inspected and is free from harmful pests and plant diseases.
Political RiskIn export financing the risk of loss due to such causes as currency, inconvertibility, government action preventing entry of goods, expropriation or confiscation, war, etc.
Privileged Foreign (PF)Foreign merchandise or non-tax paid domestic merchandise upon which the duty and applicable taxes have been determined at the time this status is approved.
Purchasing AgentAn agent who purchases goods in his or her own country on behalf of foreign importers such as government agencies and large private concerns.

Glossary of IMPEX Business Trade Terms Starting with - Q

QRsQRs mean Quantitative Restrictions. QRs refer to specific limits imposed by countries on the quantity or value of goods that can be imported or exported. QRs are non-tariff measures which are taken to regulate or prohibit international.
QuotaThe quantity of goods of a specific kind that a country permit to be imported without restriction or imposition of additional Duties.
QuotationAn offer to sell goods at a stated price and under specified conditions.
Quid Pro QuoLatin for "this for that." An exchange of one thing for another.

Glossary of International Trade Terms Starting with - R

R-Square (the Coefficient of Determination)The percent of the variation in a dependent variable (a y-variable) that is explained by variation in an independent variable (an x-variable).
Random WalkA process in which instantaneous changes in exchange rates are normally distributed with a zero mean and constant variance.
Re-Invoicing CentersAn offshore financial affiliate that is used to channel funds to and from the multinational’s foreign operations.
Real Appreciation/DepreciationA change in the purchasing power of a currency.
Real Cash Flow(RCF)A cash flow is expressed in real terms if the current, or date 0, purchasing power of the cash flow is given.
Real Exchange Rate (RER)A measure of the nominal exchange rate that has been adjusted for inflation differentials since an arbitrarily defined base period.
Real Interest Rate (RIR)Interest rate expressed in terms of real goods; that is, the nominal interest rate minus the expected inflation rate.
Real Options (RO)An option or option-like feature embedded in a real investment opportunity.
Reciprocal Marketing AgreementA strategic alliance in which two companies agree to co market each other’s products in their home market. Production rights may or may not be transferred.
RecourseThe right to demand return of money paid. In negotiation of a letter of credit, payment by the negotiating bank will normally be with recourse.
Regional Development BanksBanks that are owned and operated by member nations; they are designed to extend development loans and provide other assistance to member nations. The world's four regional development banks are the African Development Bank Group.
Registered Bonds (RB)Bonds for which each issuer maintains a record of the owners of its bonds. Countries requiring that bonds be issued in registered form include the United States and Japan. (Contrast with bearer bonds.)
Registration Statement (RS)In the United States, a statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on securities issues that discloses relevant information to the public.
RepatriationThe act of remitting cash flows from a foreign affiliate to the parent firm.
Reservation PriceThe price below (above) which a seller (purchaser) is unwilling to go.
Residual ValueThe value of an asset at the conclusion of a lease.
Restrictive EndorsementEndorsement transferring title or right to a named party.
Retention RatioRetained earnings divided by net income.
Return on Equity (ROE)Net income after interest and taxes divided by average common stockholder's equity.
RevaluationAn increase in a currency value relative to other currencies in a fixed exchange rate system.
Right of Priority (ROP)"The right of a patent holder of a patent issued in one country to intellectual property rights in a foreign market for one year, without filing for a local patent, even if someone from the foreign market files a local patent for the same process.
Rights of Set-OffAn agreement defining each party’s rights should one party default on its obligation. Rights of set-off were common in parallel loan arrangements.
Risk AverseSeeking stability rather than risk.
Risk PremiumThe excess return on the risky asset that is the difference between expected return on risky assets and the return of risk-free assets.
Risk ProfileA graph with the value of an underlying asset on the x-axis and the value of a position exposed to risk in the underlying asset on the y-axis. Also used with changes in value. (Contrast with payoff profile.)
Roll’s CritiqueThe CAPM holds by construction when performance is measured against a mean-variance efficient index. Otherwise, it holds not at all.
RoyaltyPayment made for the use of a person or business’s property based on an agreed percentage of the income arising from its use.
Rule #1Always keep track of your currency units.
Rule #2Always think of buying and selling the currency in the denominator of a foreign exchange quote.
Rules of OriginRules used to determine in what country a good will be considered as actually made for tariff and other trade purposes.
ReactivationA resumption of the activated status of an entire area that was previously deactivated without any change in the operator or the area boundaries.
Regional CommissionerThe Regional Commissioner of Customs for the Customs Region in which the zone is located.
Remitting BankBank that sends the draft to overseas bank for collection.
Retail TradeGenerally, sales or offers to sell goods or services to individuals for personal use.
Revocable Letter of CreditA letter of credit that can be canceled or altered by the drawee (buyer) after it has been issued by the drawee's bank.

Glossary of Export International Trade Terms Starting with -S

SBA (Small Business Administration)An independent agency of the U.S. federal government that aids, counsels, assists, and protects the interests of small business concerns to preserve free competitive enterprise and to maintain and strengthen the overall economy of the nation.
Scenario AnalysisA process of asking What if? using scenarios that capture key elements of possible future realities.
Security Market Line (SML)In the CAPM, the relation between required return and systematic risk (or beta): Rj - RF + bj (E[RM] - RF).
Security SelectionAn investment strategy that attempts to identify individual securities that are under priced relative to other securities in a particular market or industry.
Seeking Stability Rather than RiskAn element of the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property that gives an inventor 12 months from the date of the first application filed in a Paris Convention country in which to file in other Paris Convention countries.
Segmented MarketA market that is partially or wholly isolated from other markets by one or more market imperfections.
Semi-Strong form Efficient MarketA market in which prices fully reflect all publicly available information.
Sensitivity Analysis (SA)Analysis of the effect on the project when there is some change in critical variables such as sales and costs.
Separation PrincipleThe principle that portfolio choice can be separated into two independent tasks: (1) determination of the optimal risky portfolio, which is purely technical problem, and (2) the personal choice of the best mix of the risky portfolio.
Set-of-Contracts PerspectiveA view of the corporation as the nexus of a set of legal contracts linking the various stakeholders. Important contracts include those with customers, suppliers, labor, management, debt, and equity.
Sharpe IndexA measure of risk-adjusted investment performance in excess return per unit of total risk: SI = (RP - RF)/(sP).
ShipperUsually the supplier or owner of commodities shipped.
Short PositionA position in which a particular asset (such as a spot or forward currency) has been sold.
Short SellingSelling an asset that you do not own, or taking a short position.
Side EffectAny aspect of an investment project that can be valued separately from the project itself.
Sight DraftA draft that is payable on demand.
SignalingThe use of observable managerial actions in the marketplace as an indication of management’s beliefs concerning the prospects of the company.
Simple InterestInterest calculated by considering only the original principal amount.
Smoot Hawley ActPassed in 1930, this protectionist act increased import duties to the highest rate ever imposed by the United States, resulting in the downfall of the world trade system.
Social CapitalPhysical or real capital that is owned by the public sector rather than by private firms.
Sogo SoshaA term referring to general trading companies that import and export merchandise.
Sole ProprietorshipA business owned by a single individual. The sole proprietorship pays no corporate income tax but has unlimited liability for business debts and obligations.
Special Drawing Right (SDR)An international reserve created by the International Monetary Fund and allocated to member countries to supplement foreign exchange reserves.
Specific TariffA tariff assessed at a specific amount per unit of weight.
Spot Exchange-RateExchange-rate today for settlement in two days.
Spot MarketA market in which trades are made for immediate delivery (within two business days for most spot currencies).
Stabilization PoliciesGovernment policies designed to promote economic growth, steady employment, and stable prices.
StakeholdersThose with an interest in the firm. A narrow definition includes the corporation’s debt and equity holders. A broader definition includes labor, management, and perhaps other interested parties, such as customers, suppliers, and society at large.
Stamp TaxA tax on a financial transaction.
Standard DeviationThe positive square root of the variance. This is the standard statistical measure of the spread of a sample.
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)A standard numerical code system used by the U.S. government to classify products and services.
Stated Annual Interest RateThe interest rate expressed as a percentage per annum, by which interest payment is determined.
Stationary Time SeriesA time series in which the process generating returns is identical at every instant of time.
Stock Index FuturesA futures contract on a stock index.
Stock Index SwapA swap involving a stock index. The other asset involved in a stock index swap can be another stock index (a stock-for-stock swap), a debt index (a debt-for-stock swap), or any other financial asset or financial price index.
Stock MarketAn institution that facilitates the buying and selling of stocks.
Strategic AllianceA collaborative agreement between two companies designed to achieve some strategic goal. Strategic alliances include international licensing agreements, management contracts, and joint ventures as special cases.
Striking PriceThe price at which an option can be exercised (also called the exercise price).
Subpart F IncomeIn the U.S. tax code, income from foreign subsidiaries owned more than 10 percent and controlled foreign corporations that is taxed on a pro rata basis as it is earned.
SubsidiaryAny organization controlled by another with more than 50 percent of its whose voting capital held by the latter.
Subsidized FinancingFinancing that is provided by a host government and that is issued at a below-market interest rate.
SubsidyMonetary assistance granted by the government to an individual or other entity in support of an activity that is regarded as being in the public interest.
Subsistence AgricultureSmall-scale agriculture designed to meet the consumption needs of individual households.
Sunk CostA cost that has already occurred and cannot be removed. Because sunk costs are in the past, such costs should be ignored when deciding whether to accept or reject a project.
Sunk CostsExpenditures that are at least partially lost once an investment is made.
Supervisory BoardThe board of directors that represents stakeholders in the governance of the corporation.
SwapAn agreement to exchange two liabilities (or assets) and, after a prearranged length of time, to reexchange the liabilities (or assets).
Swap BookA swap bank’s portfolio of swaps, usually arranged by currency and by maturity.
SwaptionA swap with one or more options attached.
SWIFT (Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Transactions)Network through which international banks conduct their financial transactions.
Switching OptionsA sequence of options in which exercise of one option creates one or more additional options. Investment-disinvestments, entry-exit, expansion-contraction, and suspension-reactivation decisions are examples of switching options.
SyndicateThe selling group of investment banks in a public securities offering.
SynergyIn an acquisition or merger, when the value of the combination is greater than the sum of the individual parts: Synergy = VAT - (VA + VT).
Synthetic Forward PositionA forward position constructed through borrowing in one currency, lending in another currency, and offsetting these transactions in the spot exchange market.
Systematic RiskRisk that is common to all assets and cannot be diversified away (measured by beta).
SEZsSEZs means Special Economic Zones In principle approvals have already been given for setting up of 26 new SEZs (state government/private sector) at Nanguneri (Tamil Nadu), Paradeep (Orissa), Gopalpur (Orissa), Kulpi (West Bengal), Bhadohi (U
STPsSTP means Software Technology Parks
SEPCAn exclusive Services Export Promotion Council announced in the Foreign Trade Policy to map opportunities for key services in key markets.
Schedule - BRefers to Schedule B, Statistical Classification of Domestic and Foreign Commodities Exported from the India.
Ship's ManifestAn instrument in writing, signed by the captain of a ship, that lists the individual shipments constituting the ship's cargo.
Sight DraftA draft that is payable upon presentation to the drawee.
Spot ExchangeThe purchase or sale of foreign exchange for immediate delivery.
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)A standard numerical code system used by the U.S. Government to classify products and services.
Standard International Trade Classification (SITC)A standard numerical code system developed by the U.N. to classify commodities used in international trade.
Steamship ConferenceA group of steamship operators that operate under mutually agreed upon freight rates.
Straight Bill of LadingA nonnegotiable bill of lading in which the goods are consigned directly to a named consignee.
SubzoneA special purpose zone established as part of a zone project for a limited purpose, that cannot be accommodated within an existing zone.

Glossary of Import International Trade Terms Starting with - T

TangibilityTangible assets are real assets that can be used as collateral to secure debt.
Tare WeightThe weight of a container and packing materials that excludes the weight of the goods it contains.
Tariff-QuotaA tariff that is set at a lower rate until a specified quantity (the quota) of goods has been imported, at which point the tariff increases for additional imports.
TariffsTaxes on imported goods and services, levied by governments to raise revenues and create barriers to trade.
Tax ArbitrageArbitrage using a difference in tax rates or tax systems as the basis for profit.
Tax ClientelesClienteles of investors with specific preferences for debt or equity that are driven by differences in investors’ personal tax rates.
Tax HavenA country or region imposing low or no taxes on foreign source income.
Tax HolidayA reduced tax rate provided by a government as an inducement to foreign direct investment.
Tax NeutralityTaxes that do not interfere with the natural flow of capital toward its most productive use.
Tax Preference ItemsItems such as tax-loss carry forwards and carry backs and investment tax credits that shield corporate taxable income from taxes.
Tax-Haven AffiliateA wholly owned affiliate that is in a low-tax jurisdiction and that is used to channel funds to and from the multinational’s foreign operations. (The tax benefits of tax-haven affiliates were largely removed in the United States by the Tax Reform Act of 1
Technical AnalysisAny method of forecasting future exchange rates based on the history of exchange rates.
Territorial Tax SystemA tax system that taxes domestic income but not foreign income. This tax regime is found in Hong Kong, France, Belgium, and the Netherlands.
Time DraftA draft that is payable on a specified future dare.
Time Value of an OptionThe difference between the value of an option and the option’s intrinsic value.
The Foreign Trade Data BankIs the Indian Government's most comprehensive source of Foreign Trade Data and export promotion information. Types of information on the FTDB include: International Market Research, Export Opportunities; Indices of Foreign and Domestic companies.
Timing OptionThe ability of the firm to postpone investment (or disinvestments) and to reconsider the decision at a future date.
Total Cash FlowTotal cash inflow minus total cash outflow.
Total Quality Management (TQM)An organization-wide approach to continuously improving the overall quality of its process, products, and service.
Total RiskThe sum of systematic and unsystematic risk (measured by the standard deviation or variance of return).
Trade AcceptanceA time draft that is drawn on and accepted by an importer.
Trade BalanceA country’s net balance (exports minus imports) on merchandise trade.
Trade BarrierA governmental policy, action, or practice that intentionally interrupts the free flow of goods or services between countries.
Trade DeficitA trade deficit occurs when the value of a country's exports is less than the value of its imports.
Trade SurplusA trade surplus occurs when the value of a country's exports is greater than the value of its imports.
Trade-in AllowancePrice discount granted for a new item by turning in an old item at the time of purchase.
TrademarkA registration process under which a name, logo, or characteristic can be identified as exclusive.
Trading Desk (Dealing Desk)The desk at an international bank that trades spot and forward foreign exchange.
Transaction ExposureChanges in the value of contractual (monetary) cash flows as a result of changes in currency values.
Transaction StatementA document that clearly outlines the terms and conditions agreed upon between an importer and an exporter.
Transfer PricesPrices on intercompany sales
Transfer PricingThe price one unit of a company charges to another unit of the same company for goods or services exchanged between the two.
Translation (Accounting) ExposureChanges in a corporation’s financial statements as a result of changes in currency values.
TrusteeA bank or trust company that holds title to or a security interest in leased property for the benefit of the lessee, lesser, and/or creditors of the lesser.
Turnkey ContractAn agreement in which a contractor is responsible for setting up a facility from start to finish for another firm.
Tare WeightThe weight of a container and packing materials without the weight of the goods it contains.
TenorDesignation of a payment as being due at sight, a given number of days after sight, or a given number of days after date.
Through Bill of LadingA single bill of lading covering both the domestic and international carriage of an export shipment.
Tramp SteamerA ship not operating on regular routes or schedules.
Transaction StatementA document that delineates the terms and conditions agreed upon between the importer and exporter.
TransferTo take merchandise with zone status from a zone for consumption, transportation, exportation, warehousing, cartage or lighter age, vessel supplies and equipment, admission to another zone, and like purposes.
Trust ReceiptRelease of merchandise by a bank to a buyer in which the bank retains title to the merchandise.

Glossary of Export Import Foreign Trade Terms Starting with - U

Unbiased Expectations HypothesisThe hypothesis that forward exchange rates are unbiased predictors of future spot rates.
Uncertainty AvoidanceThe extent to which a society tolerates uncertainty and ambiguity.
Unemployment RateThe ratio of the total number of unemployed persons to the total number of persons in the labor force.
Unlevered Beta (Systematic Business Risk)The beta (or systematic risk) of a project as if it were financed with 100 percent equity.
Unlevered Cost of EquityThe discount rate appropriate for an investment assuming it is financed with 100 percent equity.
Unsustainable DebtA financial condition in which a country is unable to service its foreign (external) debt without decimating its economy.
Unsystematic RiskRisk that is specific to a particular security or country and that can be eliminated through diversification.
UsuryThe practice of charging or paying exorbitant interest on a loan or other transaction. Note: in Islamic societies, charging or receiving any amount of interest is considered usury.
Unique Identifier Number(UIN)This inventory method controls merchandise in a zone by unique numbers and/or letters that identify merchandise admitted to a zone.
UserA person or firm using a zone for storage, handling or processing of merchandise.

Glossary of Import Export Trade Terms Starting with - V

Value ChainA value-added process in a firm to transform raw materials and other inputs to finished goods, which creates value to customers.
Value DateDate on which a foreign exchange contract is executed, i.e. seller delivers.
Value StocksStocks with low price/book ratios or price/earnings ratios. Historically, value stocks have enjoyed higher average returns than growth stocks (stocks with high price/book or PE ratios) in a variety of countries.
Value-Added Tax (VAT)A sales tax collected at each stage of production in proportion to the value added during that stage.
Variable CostsA cost that varies directly with volume and is zero when production is zero.
Venture CapitalAn investment in a start-up business that is perceived to have excellent growth prospects but that does not have access to capital markets.
Virtual CorporationPartnerships so close those two partners become a single firm for all operational purposes.
Voluntary Export Restraint (VER)One country promises another country to limit its imports; this is often done when the promising country fears increased tariffs or quotas if it does not self-regulate.
Value AdditionValue addition refers to the increment added in the process of manufacture of a particular item, which also becomes part of its price.
VKUJVishesh Krishi Upaj Yojana, a new scheme introduced in the Foreign Trade Policy (2004-2009) as part of the package for agriculture.
Validated Export LicenceA required document issued by the Indian Government authorizing the export of specific commodities.

Glossary of EXIM  Terms Starting with -  W

Warehouse ReceiptA receipt issued by a warehouse listing the goods received.
Warehouse-to-WarehouseAn insurance policy that covers goods over the entire journey from the seller's to the buyer's premises.
WarrantAn option issued by a company that allows the holder to purchase equity from the company at a predetermined price prior to an expiration date. Warrants are frequently attached to Eurobonds.
Weak form Efficient MarketA market in which prices fully reflect the information in past prices.
Weight NoteDocument issued by either the exporter or a third party declaring the weight of goods in a consignment.
Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC)A discount rate that reflects the after-tax required returns on debt and equity capital.
Wharfage ChargeA charge assessed by a pier or dock owner for handling incoming or outgoing cargo.
Withholding TaxA tax on dividend or interest income that is withheld for payment of taxes in a host country. Payment is typically withheld by the financial institution distributing the payment.
Working CapitalAn accounting term that indicates the difference between current assets and current liabilities.
World BankOne of the "Big Three" international organizations designed to oversee economic relations among the countries of the world. Its goal is to improve the quality of life for people in the poorer regions of the world by promoting sustainable economic development.
World Trade Organization (WTO)The WTO is a multilateral organization that promotes free and fair trade among the nations of the world. It was created in 1994 by 121 nations at the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO is responsible for implementation.
Worldwide Tax SystemA tax system that taxes worldwide income as it is repatriated to the parent company. Used in Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Warehouse ReceiptA receipt issued by a warehouse listing goods received for storage.
Wharf ageA charge assessed by a pier or dock owner for handling incoming or outgoing cargo.
Without ReserveA term indicating that a shipper's agent or representative is empowered to make definitive decisions and adjustments abroad without approval of the group or individual represented.

Glossary of Export Trade Terms Starting withY - Words and Definitions

Yield to MaturityThe discount rate that equates the present value of interest payments and redemption value with the present price of the bond.

Glossary of International  Trade Export Import Terms Starting with - Z

ZaibatsuLarge family-owned conglomerates that controlled much of the economy of Japan prior to World War II.
ZeitgeistThe spirit of the time; the general intellectual state and outlook of an era or generation.
Zone Lot Number (ZLN)A collection of merchandise maintained under an inventory control method based on specific identification of merchandise admitted to a zone by lot and lot number.
Zone ProjectAll of the zone and subzone sites under a single grantee, normally in a single port of entry.
Zone Restricted (ZR)Merchandise admitted to a zone for the sole purpose of exportation or destruction.
Zone SiteThe physical location of a zone or subzone.
Zone StatusThe status of merchandise admitted to a Foreign-Trade Zone, i.e., domestic (D), non-privileged foreign (NPF), privileged foreign (PF), or zone restricted (ZR) status.

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Date: 20-09-2017
Circular No. 37/2017-Customs
Implementing Electronic Sealing for containers by exporters under self-sealing procedure prescribed by Circular 26/2017-Cus dated 1st July, 2017 and Circular 36/2017 dated 28th August, 2017.

Date: 18-09-2017
Notification No. 45/2017-Customs (ADD)
Seeks to impose anti-dumping duty on "New/unused pneumatic radial tyres with or without tubes and/or flap of rubber (including tubeless tyres) having normal rim dia code above 16'' used in buses and lorries/trucks",originating in or exported from China PR.

Date: 16-09-2017
Circular No. 35/2017-Customs
Guidelines for provisional release of seized imported goods pending adjudication under Section 110A of the Customs Act, 1962.

Date: 15-09-2017
Notification No. 87/2017 - Customs (N.T.)
Tariff Notification in respect of Fixation of Tariff Value of Edible Oils, Brass Scrap, Poppy Seeds, Areca Nut, Gold and Sliver.

Date: 15-09-2017
A. P. (DIR Series) Circular No. 04
Export Data Processing and Monitoring System (EDPMS) Issuance of Electronic Bank Realisation Certificate (eBRC)

Date: 15-09-2017
Notification No. 76/2017-Customs
Seeks to amend certain customs notifications in pursuance to change made in Budget 2017-18.

Date: 15-09-2017
Notification No. 35/2017-Central Tax
Seeks to extend the last date for filing the return in FORM GSTR-3B for the months of August to December, 2017.

Date: 15-09-2017
Notification No. 34/2017-Central Tax
Seventh amendment to the CGST Rules, 2017.

Date: 15-09-2017
Notification No. 33/2017-Central Tax
Notifying section 51 of the CGST Act, 2017 for TDS.

Date: 15-09-2017
Notification No. 32/2017-Central Tax
Seeks to granting exemption to a casual taxable person making taxable supplies of handicraft goods from the requirement to obtain registration.

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