Key to India New Budget 2011 - 12.
KEY TO BUDGET DOCUMENTS
1. The Budget documents presented to Parliament comprise, besides the Finance Minister’s Budget
Speech, the following:
- Annual Financial Statement (AFS)
- Demands for Grants (DG)
- Appropriation Bill
- Finance Bill
- Memorandum Explaining the Provisions in the Finance Bill, 2011
- Macro-economic framework for the relevant financial year
- Fiscal Policy Strategy Statement for the financial year
- Medium Term Fiscal Policy Statement
- Expenditure Budget Volume-1
- Expenditure Budget Volume-2
- Receipts Budget
- Budget at a glance
- Highlights of Budget
- Status of Implementation of Announcements made in Finance Minister’s Budget Speech of the previous
The documents shown at Serial A, B, C and D are mandated by Art. 112,113, 114(3) and 110(a) of theConstitution of India respectively, while the documents at Serial F, G and H are presented as per the provisionsof the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003. Other documents are in the nature of explanatorystatements supporting the mandated documents with narrative or other content in a user friendly formatsuited for quick or contextual references. Hindi version of all these documents is also presented to Parliament.
A web version is hosted at http://indiabudget.nic.in, with hyperlinks, intended to make surfing more efficient.
2.1 In addition to the above, individual Departments/Ministries also prepare and present to Parliamenttheir Detailed Demands for Grants, Outcome Budget, and their Annual Reports. The Economic Surveywhich highlights the economic trends in the country and facilitates a better appreciation of the mobilizationof resources and their allocation in the Budget is brought out by the Economic Division of Department ofEconomic Affairs, Ministry of Finance. The Economic Survey is presented to Parliament in advance of theUnion Budget. The web versions of these documents are normally posted by the respective Ministries/Departments on their web sites.
2.2 To monitor the performance management of various Ministries/Departments, Result FrameworkDocument (RFD) system has been adopted by the Government. The RFD system is being implemented in thevarious Ministries/Departments in phased manner. In Phase I of the implementation, RFD was implementedto 59 Ministries/Departments for the year 2009-10. In Phase II, 62 Ministries/Departments prepared RFD forthe year 2010-11. Performance Management in the Government is a new concept which determines theperformance index based upon the agreed objectives, policies, programs and projects/schemes. To ensurethe success in achieving the agreed objectives and implementing agreed policies, programs and projects, theRFD also includes a commitment for required resources and necessary operational autonomy.
3.1 A brief description of the Budget documents listed in para 1 is given below.
3. (A) Annual Financial Statement (AFS), the document as provided under Article 112, shows estimatedreceipts and expenditure of the Government of India for 2011-12 in relation to estimates for 2010-11 as alsoexpenditure for the year 2009-10. The receipts and disbursements are shown under the three parts, in whichGovernment Accounts are kept viz.,(i) Consolidated Fund, (ii) Contingency Fund and (iii) Public Account.Under the Constitution, Annual Financial Statement distinguishes expenditure on revenue account from otherexpenditure. Government Budget, therefore, comprises Revenue Budget and Capital Budget. The estimatesof receipts and expenditure included in the Annual Financial Statement are for the expenditure net of refundsand recoveries, as will be reflected in the accounts.
The significance of the Consolidated Fund, the Contingency Fund and the Public Account as well as thedistinguishing features of Revenue and Capital Budget are given briefly below.
- The existence of the Consolidated Fund of India (CFI) flows from Article 266 of the Constitution. Allrevenues received by Government, loans raised by it, and also its receipts from recoveries of loansgranted by it form the Consolidated Fund. All expenditure of Government is incurred from theConsolidated Fund of India and no amount can be drawn from the Consolidated Fund withoutauthorisation from Parliament.
- Article 267 of the Constitution authorises the Contingency Fund of India which is an imprest placed atthe disposal of the President of India to facilitate Government to meet urgent unforeseen expenditurepending authorization from Parliament. Parliamentary approval for such unforeseen expenditure isobtained, post-facto, and an equivalent amount is drawn from the Consolidated Fund to recoup theContingency Fund. The corpus of the Contingency Fund as authorised by Parliament presently standsat Rs.500 crore.
- Moneys held by Government in Trust as in the case of Provident Funds, Small Savings collections,income of Government set apart for expenditure on specific objects like road development, primaryeducation, Reserve/Special Funds etc. are kept in the Public Account. Public Account funds do notbelong to Government and have to be finally paid back to the persons and authorities who depositedthem. Parliamentary authorisation for such payments is, therefore, not required, except where amountsare withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund with the approval of Parliament and kept in the PublicAccount for expenditure on specific objects, in which case, the actual expenditure on the specificobject is again submitted for vote of Parliament for drawal from the Public Account for incurringexpenditure on the specific object.
- Revenue Budget consists of the revenue receipts of Government (tax revenues and other revenues)and the expenditure met from these revenues. Tax revenues comprise proceeds of taxes and otherduties levied by the Union. The estimates of revenue receipts shown in the Annual FinancialStatement take into account the effect of various taxation proposals made in the Finance Bill. Otherreceipts of Government mainly consist of interest and dividend on investments made by Government,fees, and other receipts for services rendered by Government. Revenue expenditure is for thenormal running of Government departments and various services, interest payments on debt,subsidies, etc. Broadly, the expenditure which does not result in creation of assets for Governmentof India is treated as revenue expenditure. All grants given to State Governments/Union Territoriesand other parties are also treated as revenue expenditure even though some of the grants may beused for creation of assets.
- Capital Budget consists capital receipts and capital payments. The capital receipts are loans raisedby Government from public, called market loans, borrowings by Government from Reserve Bank andother parties through sale of Treasury Bills, loans received from foreign Governments and bodies,disinvestment receipts and recoveries of loans from State and Union Territory Governments andother parties. Capital payments consist of capital expenditure on acquisition of assets like land,buildings, machinery, equipment, as also investments in shares, etc., and loans and advances grantedby Central Government to State and Union Territory Governments, Government companies,Corporations and other parties.
- Accounting Classification
- The estimates of receipts and disbursements in the Annual Financial Statement and of expenditurein the Demands for Grants are shown according to the accounting classification prescribed underArticle 150 of the Constitution, which enables Parliament and the public to make a meaningfulanalysis of allocation of resources and purposes of Government expenditure.
- The Annual Financial Statement shows separately, certain disbursements as charged on theConsolidated Fund of India, where the Constitution mandates such items of expenditure, like
emoluments of the President, salaries and allowances of the Chairman and the Deputy Chairmanof the Rajya Sabha and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Lok Sabha, salaries, allowancesand pensions of Judges of the Supreme Court, Comptroller and Auditor-General of India and theCentral Vigilance Commission, interest on and repayment of loans raised by Government andpayments made to satisfy decrees of courts etc. These items of expenditure are charged on theConsolidated Fund of India and are not required to be voted by the Lok Sabha.
3. (B) Demands for Grants
- Article 113 of the Constitution mandates that the estimates of expenditure from the ConsolidatedFund of India included in the Annual Financial Statement and required to be voted by the Lok Sabhaare submitted in the form of Demands for Grants. The Demands for Grants are presented to the LokSabha along with the Annual Financial Statement. Generally, one Demand for Grant is presented inrespect of each Ministry or Department. However, more than one Demand may be presented for aMinistry or Department depending on the nature of expenditure. In regard to Union Territories withoutLegislature, a separate Demand is presented for each of the Union Territories. In budget 2011-12there are 106 Demands for Grants. Each Demand first gives the totals of ‘voted’ and ‘charged’expenditure as also the ‘revenue’ and ‘capital’ expenditure included in the Demand separately, andalso the grand total of the amount of expenditure for which the Demand is presented. This is followedby the estimates of expenditure under different major heads of account. The breakup of the expenditureunder each major head between ‘Plan’ and ‘Non-Plan’ is also given. The amounts of recoveries takenin reduction of expenditure in the accounts are also shown. A summary of Demands for Grants isgiven at the beginning of this document, while details of ‘New Service’ or ‘New Instrument of Service’such as, formation of a new company, undertaking or a new scheme, etc., if any, are indicated at theend of the document.
- Each Demand normally includes the total provisions required for a service, that is, provisions onaccount of revenue expenditure, capital expenditure, grants to State and Union Territory Governmentsand also loans and advances relating to the service. Where the provision for a service is entirely forexpenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India, for example, interest payments (Demand forGrant No. 34), a separate Appropriation, as distinct from a Demand, is presented for that expenditureand it is not required to be voted by Lok Sabha. Where, however, expenditure on a service includesboth ‘voted’ and ‘charged’ items of expenditure, the latter are also included in the Demand presentedfor that service but the ‘voted’ and ‘charged’ provisions are shown separately in that Demand.
3. (C) Appropriation Bill
Under Article 114(3) of the Constitution, no amount can be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fundwithout the enactment of such a law by Parliament. After the Demands for Grants are voted by the LokSabha, Parliament’s approval to the withdrawal from the Consolidated Fund of the amounts so voted and ofthe amount required to meet the expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund is sought through theAppropriation Bill.
The whole process beginning with the presentation of the Budget and ending with discussions and votingon the Demands for Grants requires sufficiently long time. The Lok Sabha is, therefore, empowered by theConstitution to make any grant in advance in respect of the estimated expenditure for a part of the financialyear pending completion of procedure for the voting of the Demands. The purpose of the ‘Vote on Account’ isto keep Government functioning, pending voting of ‘final supply’. The Vote on Account is obtained fromParliament through an Appropriation (Vote on Account) Bill.
3. (D) Finance Bill
At the time of presentation of the Annual Financial Statement before Parliament, a Finance Bill is alsopresented in fulfillment of the requirement of Article 110 (1)(a) of the Constitution, detailing the imposition,abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of taxes proposed in the Budget. A Finance Bill is a Money Bill asdefined in Article 110 of the Constitution. It is accompanied by a Memorandum explaining the provisionsincluded in it.
3. (E) Memorandum Explaining the Provisions in the Finance Bill
To facilitate understanding of the taxation proposals contained in the Finance Bill, the provisions and theirimplications are explained in the document titled Memorandum Explaining the Provisions of the Finance Bill.
3. (F) Macro-economic Framework Statement
The Macro-economic Framework Statement, presented to Parliament under Section 3(5) of the FiscalResponsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003 and the rules made thereunder contains an assessment ofthe growth prospects of the economy with specific underlying assumptions. It contains assessment regardingthe GDP growth rate, fiscal balance of the Central Government and the external sector balance of the economy.
3. (G) Fiscal Policy Strategy Statement
The Fiscal Policy Strategy Statement, presented to Parliament under Section 3(4) of the Fiscal Responsibilityand Budget Management Act, 2003, outlines the strategic priorities of Government in the fiscal area for theensuing financial year relating to taxation, expenditure, lending and investments, administered pricing,borrowings and guarantees. The Statement explains how the current policies are in conformity with soundfiscal management principles and gives the rationale for any major deviation in key fiscal measures.
3. (H) Medium-term Fiscal Policy Statement
The Medium-term Fiscal Policy Statement, presented to Parliament under Section 3(2) of the FiscalResponsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003, sets out three-year rolling targets for four specific fiscalindicators in relation to GDP at market prices namely (i) Revenue Deficit, (ii) Fiscal Deficit, (iii) Tax to GDPratio and (iv) Total out-standing Debt at the end of the year. The Statement includes the underlying assumptions,an assessment of sustainability relating to balance between revenue receipts and revenue expenditure andthe use of capital receipts including market borrowings for generation of productive assets.
3.2 To facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the major features of the Budget, certain otherexplanatory documents are presented. These are briefly summarised below.
3. (I) Expenditure Budget Volume-1
- This document deals with revenue and capital disbursements of various Ministries/Departments andgives the estimates in respect of each under ‘Plan’ and ‘Non-Plan’. It also gives analysis of varioustypes of expenditure and broad reasons for the variations in estimates.
- Under the present accounting and budgetary procedures, certain classes of receipts, like paymentsmade by one department to another and receipts of capital projects or schemes, are taken in reductionof the expenditure of the receiving department. While the estimates of expenditure included in theDemands for Grants are for the gross amounts, the estimates of expenditure included in the AnnualFinancial Statement are for the net expenditure, after taking into account the recoveries. The document,Expenditure Budget, makes certain other refinements like netting expenditure of related receipts sothat inflation of receipts and expenditure figures is avoided and there can be better appreciation ofthe magnitudes of various expenditure. Contributions to International bodies and estimated strengthof establishment of various Government Departments and provision therefor are shown in separate
annexes. A statement each, showing (i) Plan grants and loans released by Ministries/Departmentsdirectly to State and district level autonomous bodies, under various Central and Centrally SponsoredPlan schemes, (ii) Gender Budgeting and (iii) Schemes for Development of Scheduled Castes andScheduled Tribes and (iv) Schemes for Welfare of Children are also included in this document.
- Plan Outlay
Plan expenditure forms a sizeable proportion of the total expenditure of the Central Government. TheDemands for Grants of the various Ministries show the Plan expenditure under each head separatelyfrom the Non-Plan expenditure. The Expenditure Budget Vol. 1 also gives the total Plan provisions foreach of the Ministries arranged under the various heads of development and highlights the budgetprovisions for the more important Plan programmes and schemes. A description of important schemesincluded in the Plan along with the objectives, targets and achievements is given in the OutcomeBudget of the respective Ministry. Variations in the estimates of Plan expenditure are also explained.
- Public Sector Enterprises
A large part of the Plan expenditure incurred by the Central Government is through public sectorenterprises. Budgetary support for financing outlays of these enterprises is provided by Governmenteither through investment in share capital or through loans. Expenditure Budget Vol. 1 shows theestimates of capital and loan disbursements to public sector enterprises in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012for Plan and Non-Plan purposes and also the extra budgetary resources available for financing theirPlans. A detailed report on the working of public sector enterprises is given in the document titled‘Public Enterprises Survey’ brought out separately by the Department of Public Enterprises. A reporton the working of the enterprises under the control of various administrative Ministries is also given inthe Annual Reports of the various Ministries circulated to Members of Parliament separately. Theannual reports along with the audited accounts of each of the Government companies are alsoseparately laid before Parliament. Besides, the reports of the Comptroller and Auditor General ofIndia on the working of various public sector enterprises are also laid before Parliament.
- Commercial Departments
Railways is the principal departmentally-run commercial undertaking of Government. The Budget ofthe Ministry of Railways and the Demands for Grants relating to Railway expenditure are presentedto Parliament separately. The total receipts and expenditure of the Railways are, however, incorporatedin the Annual Financial Statement of the Government of India. To portray the actual working and notinflate either receipts or expenditure, the expenditure as reflected in the Receipts Budget & ExpenditureBudget Vol. 1 and Vol. 2 has been taken net of receipts of the departmental commercial undertakings.
- The receipts and expenditure of the Defence Demands shown in the Annual Financial Statement, areexplained in greater detail in the document Defence Services Estimates presented along with theDetailed Demands for Grants of the Ministry of Defence.
- The details of grants given to bodies other than State and Union Territory Governments are given inthe statements of Grants-in-aid paid to non-Government bodies appended to Detailed Demands forGrants of the various Ministries. Annexure 5 to Expenditure Budget Vol.1 shows details of grants-inaidexceeding Rs.5 lakhs (recurring) or Rs.10 lakhs (non-recurring) to private institutions, organisationsand individuals sanctioned during the year 2009-10.
3. (J) Expenditure Budget Volume-2
The provisions made for a scheme or a programme may spread over a number of Major Heads in theRevenue and Capital sections in a Demand for Grants. In the Expenditure Budget Vol. 2, the estimates madefor a scheme/programme are brought together and shown on a net basis at one place, by Major Heads. Tounderstand the objectives underlying the expenditure proposed for various schemes and programmes in theDemands for Grants, suitable explanatory notes are included in this volume in which, wherever necessary,brief reasons for variations between the Budget estimates and revised estimates for the current year andrequirements for the ensuing Budget year are also given.
3. (K) Receipts Budget
Estimates of receipts included in the Annual Financial Statement are further analysed in the document“Receipts Budget”. The document provides details of tax and non-tax revenue receipts and capital receiptsand explains the estimates. The document also provides the arrears of tax revenues and non-tax revenues,as mandated under the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Rules, 2004. Trend of receipts andexpenditure along with deficit indicators, statement pertaining to National Small Savings Fund (NSSF), statementof revenues foregone, statement of liabilities, statement of guarantees given by the government, statementsof assets and details of external assistance are also included in Receipts Budget.
3. (L) Budget at a Glance
- This document shows in brief, receipts and disbursements along with broad details of tax revenuesand other receipts. This document also exhibits broad break-up of expenditure - Plan and Non-Plan,allocation of Plan outlays by sectors as well as by Ministries/Departments and details of resourcestransferred by the Central Government to State and Union Territory Governments. This documentalso shows the revenue deficit, the gross primary deficit and the gross fiscal deficit of the CentralGovernment. The excess of Government’s revenue expenditure over revenue receipts constitutesrevenue deficit of Government. The difference between the total expenditure of Government by wayof revenue, capital and loans net of repayments on the one hand and revenue receipts of Governmentand capital receipts which are not in the nature of borrowing but which finally accrue to Governmenton the other, constitutes gross fiscal deficit. Gross primary deficit is measured by gross fiscal deficitreduced by gross interest payments. In the Budget documents ‘gross fiscal deficit’ and ‘gross primarydeficit’ have been referred to in abbreviated form ‘fiscal deficit’ and ‘primary deficit’, respectively. Thisdocument also shows liabilities of the Government on account of securities (bonds) issued in lieu ofoil and fertilizer subsidies.
- The document also includes a statement indicating the quantum and nature (share in Central Taxes,grants/loan) of the total Resources transferred to States and Union Territory Governments. Details ofthese transfers by way of share of taxes, grants-in-aid and loans are given in Expenditure BudgetVolume.1. Bulk of grants and loans are disbursed by the Ministry of Finance and are included in theDemand ‘Transfers to State and Union Territory Governments’. The grants and loans released toStates and Union Territories by other Ministries/Departments are provided for in their respectiveDemands.
3. (M) Highlights of Budget
This document explains the key features of the Budget 2011-2012, inter alia, indicating the prominentachievements in various sectors of the economy. It also explains, in brief, the budget proposals for allocationof funds to be made in important areas. The summary of tax proposals is also reflected in the document.
3. (N) Detailed Demands for Grants
The Detailed Demands for Grants are laid on the table of the Lok Sabha sometime after the presentationof the Budget, but before the discussion on Demands for Grants commences. Detailed Demands for Grantsfurther elaborate the provisions included in the Demands for Grants as also actual expenditure during theprevious year. A break-up of the estimates relating to each programme/organisation, wherever the amountinvolved is not less than Rs.10 lakhs, is given under a number of object heads which indicate the categoriesand nature of expenditure incurred on that programme, like salaries, wages, travel expenses, machinery andequipment, grants-in-aid, etc. At the end of these Detailed Demands are shown the details of recoveries taken
in reduction of expenditure in the accounts
3. (O) Outcome Budget
- With effect from Financial Year 2007-08, the Performance Budget and the Outcome Budget hithertopresented to Parliament separately by Ministries/Departments, are merged and presented as a singledocument titled “Outcome Budget” by each Ministry/Department in respect of all Demands/Appropriations controlled by them, except those exempted from this requirement. Outcome Budgetbroadly indicates physical dimensions of the financial budget of a Ministry/Department, indicatingactual physical performance in the preceding year (2009-2010), performance in the first nine months(up to December) of the current year (2010-2011) and the targeted performance during the ensuingyear (2011-2012).
- Outcome Budget contains a brief introductory note on the organization and function of the Ministry/Department, list of major programmes/schemes implemented by the Ministry/Department, its mandate,goal and policy framework, budget estimates, scheme-wise analysis of physical performance andlinkage between financial outlays and outcome, review covering overall trends in expenditurevis-a-vis budget estimates in recent years, review of performance of statutory and autonomous bodiesunder the administrative control of the Ministry/Department, reform measures, targets andachievements and plan for future refinements.
- As far as feasible, coverage of women and SC/ST beneficiaries under various developmental schemesand schemes for the benefit of North Eastern Region are also separately indicated.
3. (P) Annual Reports
A descriptive account of the activities of each Ministry/Department during the year 2010-2011 is given in thedocument Annual Report which is brought out separately by each Ministry/Department and circulated to Membersof Parliament at the time of discussion on the Demands for Grants.
3. (Q) Economic Survey
The Economic Survey brings out the economic trends in the country which facilitates a better appreciationof the mobilisation of resources and their allocation in the Budget. The Survey analyses the trends in agriculturaland industrial production, infrastructure, employment, money supply, prices, imports, exports, foreign exchangereserves and other relevant economic factors which have a bearing on the Budget, and is presented to theParliament ahead of the Budget for the ensuing year.
The Budget of the Central Government is not merely a statement of receipts and expenditure. SinceIndependence, with the launching of Five Year Plans, it has also become a significant statement ofgovernment policy. The Budget reflects and shapes, and is, in turn, shaped by the country’s economy.For a better appreciation of the impact of government receipts and expenditure on the other sectors ofthe economy, it is necessary to group them in terms of economic magnitudes, for example, how much isset aside for capital formation, how much is spent directly by the Government and how much is transferredby Government to other sectors of the economy by way of grants, loans, etc. This analysis is containedin the Economic and Functional Classification of the Central Government Budget which is brought out bythe Ministry of Finance separately.
|Topics ||...|| Paragraph Number|
|Accounting classification ||...||3(A)(vi)|
|Annual Financial Statement ||...||3(A),3(A)(iv),(vi),3(B)(i),3(D),3(I)(ii),(v),(vi),3(K)|
|Annual Report ||...||2.1,3(I)(iv),3(P)|
|Appropriation Bill ||...||3(C)|
|Appropriation (Vote on Account) Bill ||...||3(C)|
|Budget at a Glance ||...||3(L)|
|Budget/Budget of the Central Government ||...||3(Q)|
|Capital Budget ||...||3(A),3(A)(v)|
|Charged Expenditure ||...||3(B)(i)|
|Consolidated Fund ||...||3(A),3(A)(i)(ii)(iii)(vi),3(B)(i)(ii),3(C)|
|Contingency Fund ||...||3(A),3(A)(ii)|
|Defence Services Estimates ||...||3(I)(vi)|
|Demands for Grants ||...||3(A)(vi),3(B)(i),3(C),3(I)(ii),|
|Detailed Demands for Grants ||...||2.1,3(I)(vi),(vii),3(N)|
|Economic Survey ||...||2.1,3(Q)|
|Expenditure Budget ||...||3(I),(ii)(iii)(iv)(vii), 3(J),3(L)(ii)|
|External Assistance ||...||3(K)|
|Extra Budgetary Resources ||...||3(I)((iv)|
|Finance Bill ||...||3(A)(iv),3(D),3(E)|
|Fiscal Deficit ||...||3(H),3(L)(i)|
|Fiscal Policy Strategy Statement ||...||3(G)|
|Guarantees given by the Central Government ||...||3(K)|
|International Bodies - Contribution to Market Loans||...||3(I)((ii)|
|Macro-economic Framework Statement ||...||3(F)|
|Medium-term Fiscal Policy Statement ||...||3(H)|
|Memorandum Explaining the Provisions in the Finance Bill||...||3(D),3(E)|
|New Service ||...||3(B)(i)|
|Outcome Budget ||...||2.1,3(I)(iii),3(O)(i)(ii)|
|Plan Outlay ||...||3(I)(iii),3(L)(i)|
|Public Account ||...||3(A),3(A)(iii),(v)|
|Public Enterprises Survey ||...||3(I)(iv)|
|Public Sector Enterprises ||...||3(I)(iv)|
|Receipts Budget ||...||3(I)(v),3(K)|
|Resources transferred to States/Union Territories||...||3(L)(i)(ii)|
|Result Framework Document ||...||2.2|
|Revenue Budget ||...||3(A)(iv)|
|Revenue Deficit ||...||3(H),3(L)(i)|
|Strength of Establishment of Govt Deptts ||...||3(I)(ii)|
|Summary of Demands for Grants ||...||3(B)(i)|
|Treasury Bills ||...||3(A)(v)|
|Vote on Account ||...||3(C)|